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Variable definitions and level of measurement

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Air travel is the foremost mode of transportation in the world today. Pricing methods used by airlines have a profound affect on travelers, and affects their decision of whether or not to travel. When prices are high, vacationers will decide to stay closer to home, and business travelers with use other methods such as video conferencing instead of meeting on site. Pressures on the airlines, such a fuel costs and employee contracts cause the cost of air travel to increase. In order for the airlines to stay in business, they have to pass the costs along to the consumer. This analysis attempts to understand the factors that influence ticket prices and how best to optimize those prices.

Using the following as the variables that determine ticket price:

? Departure Date and Time
? Number of Stops in a Flight
? Is the ticket refundable?
? Day of the Week
? First Class or Coach
? Saturday Night Stay
? Travel Packages
? Lead Time

Please help with the following:
a. Variable Definitions
Define the dependent and independent variables that are of interest in the situation chosen for the paper.
b. Level of Measurement
Define the level of measurement that will be applied to the dependent variable (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio). Describe the level of measurement of the independent variable and how it will be changed to cause a measurable change in the dependent variable.

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Solution Summary

Variable definitions and level of measurement fot the chosen paper

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Research Questions

1. The purpose of an operational definition is to:
A. assign numerical values to variables
B. specify how a variable will be defined and measured
C. state the expected relationship between variables under investigation
D. designate the overall plan by which research will be conducted

2. The independent variable (s) in a study entitled "is job performance of nurses affected by salary or perceived job autonomy?" is (are):
A. job performance
B. salary
C. perceived job autonomy
D. both salary and perceived job autonomy

3. The independent variable in the hypothesis "Baccalaureate prepared nurses
will practice more rehabilitative nursing measures on clients in an ICU than will
associate degree prepared nurses is:
A. associate degree prepared nurses
B. baccalaureate prepared nurses
C. rehabilitative nursing measures
D. type of educational background of the nurse

4. The independent variables in the study "What is the effect of noise levels on postoperative pain or blood pressure fluctuations in ICU patients?" is:
A. blood pressure
B. ICU patients
C. noise levels
D. postoperative pain

Mark the following studies as to whether they are examples of Applied (A) or Basic (B) research:
5. ___ Study of effectiveness of PAC pumps in pain management
6. ___ Study of nonverbal signals of pain in unresponsive patients
7. ___ Study of effectiveness of techniques of teaching insulin injection
8. ___ Study of material perception of the birthing experience

9. ___ Study about relationship between student's GPA while enrolled in baccalaureate degree nursing program and their pursuit of a graduate degree
Mark the following variables as to whether they are categorical (CA) or continuous (CU):
10. ___ degree of coping of ICU nurses
11. ___ stress levels of hospitalized patients
12. ___ gender of hospital patients admitted to ICU
13. _______ marital status of hospital patients seen in the ER
14. ___ spouse abuse

Label the following hypotheses as to whether they are:
Null hypothesis "N"
Directional hypothesis "D"
Nondirectional hypothesis "ND"
Also complete indicate independent and dependent variables and state whether these are "categorical or continuous"

15.__ ___ There is no relationship between patients verbalized expressions of pain and frequency of administration of pain medication
Independent Variable: ____________________________
Dependent Variable:_________________________________

16. ___ Prenatal nutritional patterns influence health outcomes of infants. Independent Variable: _______________________
Dependent Variable:___________________________________

17. ___ Smoking habits are not related to incidence of myocardial infarction.
Independent Variable: ________________________
Dependent Variable: ________________________________

18. ___ Staff nurses who work in ICU have more autonomy than clinical nurse specialists who work on general nursing units.
Independent Variable: _________________________
Dependent Variable:___________________________________

19. ___ Nurses who return to school have increased levels of personal stress.
Independent Variables: ________________________
Dependent Variables:___________________________________

20. A person's mental status is not affected by relocation to a nursing home.
Independent Variables:______________________________________ __________________________
Dependent Variables:__________________________________

21. ___ The less social support an elderly person has the more likely he/she is to be institutionalized.
Independent Variables: _________________________________ categorical/continuous
Dependent Variables: _____________________ ___

22. The type of information in which the researcher is least interested when doing a literature is:
A. How the variables of the study have been operationalized in prior studies
B. Narrations of a particular author's impression of a given situation
C. Research results
D. What research approaches have been used to study similar problems

23. A primary source for a literature review may be defined as:
A. a description of an investigation be the research who conducted the study
B. A summarization of relevant research that have been conducted on the topic of
C A description of an investigation written by an individual who is summarizing
what was written in a research article
D.None of the above

True or False: mark "T" if true and "F" if false:

24.____The independent variable is the variable which the researcher is interested in explaining.
25. ___ An abstract of a research study is generally the last section of a research report.
Indicate which of the following are operational definitions by placing an "O" in front of the statements which are operational definitions:
26. ___ A person who is mentally retarded is anyone with diminished intellectual abilities.
27.____Height will be determined by measuring the distance between two lines. The lines are determined by laying the child on a piece of paper and then marking the level of the the crown of the head and the heel of the right leg.
28. ___ A moderate level of anxiety is indicated by score of 45 on a State Trait Anxiety Scale.

Indicate the group of nurses who has the primary responsibility for the activity outlined below: (may have more than 1 answer)
A = Associate Degree
C = Master's Degree
B = Baccalaureate Degree
D = Doctoral Degree

29. ___ Design research studies
30. ___ Assist in data collection
31. ____ Provide expert consulting to a unit that is considering changing the unit's practice on the care of decubitus ulcers based on the results of a series of studies
32. ____Take and record the blood pressures of hypertensive clients during their monthly visits as part of study on effects of contingency contracting by nurse researcher

33.____To understand and critically appraise research studies to discriminate whether a study is provocative or whether the findings have sufficient support to be considered for utilization.

Indicate whether the following hypothesis are:
RQ = Research Question
RDH = Directional Research Hypothesis
RNDH = Nondirectional Research Hypothesis
SH = Statistical Hypothesis or Null

34. ___ There will be no change in self rated body image among women in the three patients
35.____what is the relationship between organizational climate dimensions and job satisfaction of nurses in Neonatal Intensive care units?
36.____ there will be a significant difference in pre-post changes in cognitive development level between the undergraduate nursing students who have completed a research course and those who have not.
37. ___ The educational preparation of the nurse will affect his/her ability to conduct thorough patient interviews.
38. ___ The higher the perceived parental support, the lower the female's general fearfulness.

39 Explain the difference between a theory and conceptual framework:

40.Explain the purpose and significance of the literature review to a research proposal:

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