# Thirty-Five Probability & Statistics Questions

See attached file for full problem description.

Part 1: True/False

1. Subjective concept of probability is the likelihood (probability) assigned by an individual, based on whatever information is available to a particular event happening.

2. An operational definition is a definition stated in terms of specific testing or measurement criteria.

3. A numerical value used as a summary measure for a sample, such as sample mean, is known as a sample statistic.

4. The classical method to assign probabilities is when the assumption of equally likely outcomes is used to assign probability values.

5. A binomial distribution has the characteristic that the probability of a success stays the same for each trial, but the probability of a failure varies from trial to trial.

6. Continuous data describes how many and the precision of continuous data depends on the tool used to measure.

7. When data that is measured on the interval or ratio level is grouped and classified into categories, the resultant data is measured using the nominal level of measurement.

8. Qualitative data must always be nonnumeric.

9. Information provided by a sample statistic is considered factual information when making inferences about a population.

10. Observational studies qualify as scientific inquiry when it is conducted specifically to answer a research question, is systematically planned and executed, uses proper controls, and provides a reliable and valid account of what happened.

11. There are four levels of measurement: Nominal, Confidential, Interval, and Ratio.

12. Validity has to do with the accuracy and precision of a measurement procedure. Reliability is defined as whether a measure accomplishes its claims.

13. The range, mean, the median, and the mode are measures of central tendency or central location.

14. An experiment is an activity that is either observed or measured.

15. The closer a probability is to 0, the more likely it is that something will happen. The closer the probability is to 1.00, the more sure we are it will not happen.

Part 2: Multiple Choice

16. Which of the following is not a negative impact of Statistics in Research?

a. Misleading b. Abusive

c. Preemptive bias d. Answers the question of uncertainty

e. All of the above are negative impacts

17. Since a sample is a subset of the population, the sample mean

a. is always smaller than the mean of the population

b. is always larger than the mean of the population

c. can be larger, smaller, or equal to the mean of the population must

d. be equal to the mean of the population

18. In statistical experiments, each time the experiment is repeated

a. the same outcome must occur b. the same outcome can not occur again

c. a different outcome must occur d. a different outcome may occur

19. The summaries of data, which may be tabular, graphical, or numerical, are referred to as

a. inferential statistics b. report generation

c. statistical inference d. descriptive statistics

20. The measure of dispersion that is influenced most by extreme values is the

a. variance b. standard deviation c. range d. mean

21. Which of the following are (is) attribute(s) of the binomial distribution?

a. An outcome of an experiment is classified into one of two mutually exclusive categories

b. The data collected are the results of counts.

c. The probability of success stays the same for each trial.

d. The trials are independent.

e. All of the above are attributes.

22. What is the relationship among the mean, median and mode in a symmetric distribution?

a. All equal b. Mean is always the smallest value

c. Mean is always the largest value d. Mode is the largest value

e. None of the above

23. What is a disadvantage of the range as a measure of dispersion?

a. Based on only two observations

b. Can be distorted by a large mean

c. Not in the same units as the original data

d. Has no disadvantage

e. None of the above

24. What kind of distribution is the binomial distribution?

a. Discrete

b. Continuous

c. Both discrete and continuous

d. Neither discrete or continuous

25. Arithmetic operations are inappropriate for________ of measurement.

a. the nominal scale

b. the interval scale

c. both the ratio and interval scales

d. the ratio scale

Part 3: Fill in the blank with the appropriate letter.

26. A(n) _____ is a value in a data set that is inconsistent with the rest of the data.

27. The result of a particular experiment is called a(n) _______.

28. What is the total (sum) of the probabilities of all possible events is ____.

29. The ____ is the value of the observation that appears most frequently.

30. The entities on which data are collected are ______.

31. Extreme values do not influence the _______, which is a measure of central tendency.

32. The mean of a population is a population __________.

33. A/An ________ estimate is a range of values used to estimate a population parameter.

34. What does the special rule of multiplication requires events A and B to be? ________________

35. A convenient way to portray probability is through the use of ________.

a. Venn diagrams d. elements g. one j. interval m. parameter

b. z distribution e. mutually exclusive h. mode k. median n. estimate

c. one hundred f. Samples i. outlier l. outcome o. descriptive statistics

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