# Statistical Procedure Explanations

Which procedure would be appropriate for each situation?

Use these for (1-4)

one way chi-square

two way chi square

ANOVA

t-test independent samples

1. A researcher is interested in the influence of temperature on helping behavior. She prepares a 'waiting room' for the test subjects. After 15 minutes in the room the test subjects will 'see' the other person in the room go into epileptic shock. The temperature in the room is set at one of three levels and the experimenter records YES or NO if the test subject initiated assistance.

2. To examine if there is a difference in teen suicides by family status, a researcher classifies families of suicide victims into one of the following: married, divorced, separated, never married, one parent deceased, both parents deceased.

3. To investigate if lower-class youths are more likely to commit crimes than middle-class youths a researcher polls 500 juvenile criminals about their economic backgrounds.

4. A researcher is interested in whether crimes committed with firearms result in fatal or non-fatal injuries and whether the type of crime influences the end result [personal crimes or burglaries].

Use these for (5-8).

a. t-test independent, two tailed

b. t-test independent, one tailed

c. t-test dependent, two tailed

d. t-test dependent, one tailed

5. High income earners claim they are paying too much in taxes. To test this claim, a sample of 100 high-income and 100 low-income taxpayers are asked to report their 'percentage of income paid in taxes'.

6. To determine the effectiveness of a training program, candidates take a test before the training and repeat the test after the training.

7. A researcher is interested in the differences between male and female drug use as measured by the number of times subjects had used marijuana or cocaine in the past three months.

8. A researcher believes that younger people use more drugs than older ones. He samples 50 teens and 50 people in their thirties measuring the number of times subjects had used marijuana or cocaine in the past three months.

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#### Solution Preview

In order to determine which procedure to use for questions 1-4, you must first determine if the data is parametric or non-parametric. The two parametric test procedures listed for this section are the ANOVA and t-test (independent samples) methods, while both Chi square methods are for non-parametric data sets. Parametric data will follow a normal distribution while non-parametric will not.

A t-test with independent samples is used when parametric data from two distinct sample ...

#### Solution Summary

This solution contains 8 specific examples pertaining to the use of either Chi-square tests, ANOVA or independent t-test. Detailed explanations are provided for the reasoning behind each choice of procedure.