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    Payne (2001) gave participants a computerized task in which they first see a face and then a picture of either a gun or a too. The task was to press one button if it was a tool and a different one if it was a gun. Unknown to the participants while they were doing the study, the faces served as a "prime" (something that starts you thinking a particular way) and half the time was of a black person and half the time of a white person. Table 2-8 shows the means and standard deviations for reaction times (time to decide if the picture is of a gun or a tool) after either a black or white prime. (In Experiment 2, participants were told to decided as fast as possible.) Explain the results to a peson who was never had a course in statistics. (Be sure to explain some specific numbers as well as the general principle of the mean and standard deviation.)

    Table 2-8 Mean Reaction Times (in Milliseconds) in Identifying Guns and Tools in Experiments 1 and 2

    Black White
    Experiment 1 M SD M SD
    ? Gun 423 64 441 73
    ? Tool 454 57 446 60
    Experiment 2
    ? Gun 299 28 295 31
    ? Tool 307 29 304 29

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