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# Ethical Practices in Statistics

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The statistical research was done primarily through the internet from governmental regulated sources. Estimates were used in consideration of absence of actual information.

a. Identify two to three sources of ethical issues in your statistical research and data collection.

b. Evaluate potential biases in your research methodology.

c. How could inaccurate, dishonest, and incomplete interpretation of your research results contribute to poor business decision making?

https://brainmass.com/statistics/data-collection/ethical-practices-in-statistics-123595

#### Solution Preview

a. Identify two to three sources of ethical issues in your statistical research and data collection.

Here are several ethical issues that may arise in this research (you can choose and/or expand on 2 - 3 of them):

1. Biases that you introduce when estimating (see part b) might influence the results of the study.

2. You must appropriately acknowledge the sources of the data, which might not be possible when collecting data from the internet.

3. You should have the raw data available to other researchers who might want to verify your study in the future. This is not possible if you only have estimates.

4. People and/or organizations about which the data was originally collected have not given their consent to be included in your study. This might not be a legal issue, since the data is publicly available on the internet.

5. You need to ask the different ...

#### Solution Summary

The solution includes
a. Six examples of sources of ethical issues,
b. Four examples of potential biases, and
c. A discussion of how inaccurate or biased interpretation results could contribute to poor business decision making.

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## Statistics: Level of measurement, interval, ratio level, causality, ethical impropriety

1. a. Why is "level of measurement" important,
b. What is level of measurement, and
c. Why is the level important?

2. What is necessary for the temperature measurement to be called Interval?
Is there a way to use the temperature measurement so it is a Ratio level?

3. What are the requirements to prove causality?

4. We talk about sampling and questionnaires. Let us look at background and do some reflection and investigation into what will help us in practice. How is the data collected? There is a whole series of questions we use to sort through the data. Generally there are four typical means of collecting data: surveys, focus groups, observational studies, and data mining. The data collected may be primary or secondary data sources. When planning to collect data the questions fall into three general types: administrative, target and classification. Even when collecting secondary data we end up asking these three types of questions because we organize our results along these lines. Administrative questions are for general information. Target questions involve the specific information pertinent to the research question. Classification questions are exactly that. Unfortunately, all methods of data collection are subject to error, bias, abuse, and misuse. This is another reason for vigilance in determining design validity, measurement validity and reliability, and ethics.

When considering the ethical implications of research there are six major groups that must be considered. The groups are: the participant, the researcher, management, the business, and society. Each group has expectations and rights and each group owes others certain rights. There is considerable information available and discussion on the rights of each group. In summary, each expects (should demand): privacy, honesty, objectivity choice, safety, informed, and respect. In practice, unethical behavior negatively affects every area of business. Most organization and business groups have established and publish codes of conduct (ethical standards).

Any comments on how effective is self-policing of organizations for ethical impropriety?

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