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Ethical Issues: Public Health, Neonatal & Prevention

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I need assistance with the following questions for a paper:

Neonatal health care:

1. What interventions would you see to improve neonatal health care in the United States? What is the key ethical issue you see in our current direction?

Infant Mortality & Morbidity Rates In the United States (US):

2. Cite the statistics on incidence and cost of premature births in this country and some other first world country.
3. State the U.S. position among all countries in terms of its infant mortality and morbidity rate.
4. Using these facts, provide a root cause analysis as to why our health care system spends so much and achieves so little.
4. Is this an ethical issue? If so how would you state the issue? Please provide references/citations etc.

Thank you for any assistance on paper structure and content.

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https://brainmass.com/health-sciences/epidemiology/ethical-issues-public-health-neonatal-prevention-136044

Solution Preview

Please see response attached for best formatting, which is also presented below. I also attached one relevant article to consider.

RESPONSE:

Interesting questions! Your attachment is downloaded below this response for easy referencing. So, let's look at the specific questions through discussion and ideas for the first question, and for the second essay questions, a detailed outline, including links for further reading and research which will get you started on this research project.

1. Discussion question # 1: Neonatal health care

What interventions would you see to improve neonatal health care in the United States? What is the key ethical issue you see in our current direction?

The interventions would need to address the current problems, financial and human, that our current health care system has in relation to neonatal care. The interventions would also include methods to reduce the rate and cost of premature birth in this country. Therefore, you need to decide what you think are the main problems first, and then formulating interventions to address these problems.

Let's take a closer look:

a. The human and financial problems of the neonatal health care in the United States are:

(i) Financial costs associated with problems associated with smoking during pregnancy e.g., pre-term births, high number of trip to intensive care unit, health of the child, high mortality rate, etc. (see http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5339a2.htm). http://www.inciid.org/article.php?id=351

(ii) Costs associated with a high rate of pre-term births (see full article at http://www.slate.com/id/2161899/)

(iii) High mortality rate of infants, (see full article at http://www.slate.com/id/2161899/) especially for blacks (2 times higher than for white women) http://www.cdc.gov/od/oc/media/pressrel/2007/r070502.htm

E.g. "To reduce infant mortality, then, we need to prevent premature births, and if that fails, improve care of premature babies once born. (Prematurity is also linked to other problems; for example, it's the leading cause of mental retardation and cerebral palsy in children.) But modern medicine isn't good at preventing prematurity-just the opposite. Better and more affordable medical care actually has worsened the rate of prematurity, and likely the rate of infant mortality, by making fertility treatment widespread. According to a 2006 Institute of Medicine report, the numbers of women using assistive reproductive technology doubled from 1996 to 2002. At least half of their pregnancies culminated in multiple births (twins or more), which are at high risk of premature delivery" (see full article at http://www.slate.com/id/2161899/)

(iv) Increased financial resources for new NICUs, but too many NICU's found to decrease quality of care for preemies.
Now, for each of these problems listed above, you need to address them through specific interventions. For example, to address the first problem of increased cost and health risks to the child due to maternal smoking during pregnancy, you might decide to implement community education programs on the dangers of smoking for the unborn child.

b. Interventions to meet these financial and human ...

Solution Summary

Though research and statistics, this solution responds to the questions posed about neonatal health care and infant mortality and morbidity rates in the United States (US). Interventions that might improve neonatal health care in the United States are also discussed, as well as the key current ethical issues to consider. Numerous links for other websites are also provided for further research.

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Unethical research studies

Unethical Research Studies
Many people believe the participants in the Tuskegee syphilis study were infected with syphilis by the investigators. Although the records indicate the infected men had contracted syphilis prior to entering the study, they were treated unethically in other ways. One unethical act was the fact they were not told about medicine that could have helped them.
Summarize why this was unethical and explain this to someone you know. Write down what the person said when you explained what happened.

Find out if the participants in the Tuskegee study were told what the purpose of the study was. If not, what were they told, and what is this tactic commonly called? Additionally, look for Web sites that have stated the facts incorrectly. See if you can find any Web sites that have correctly reported the facts. Mention which at least one Web site that is correctly reporting the facts and one Web site that is not.

Cite any sources you use using the correct APA format on a separate page.
Analyzed and explained why the act was unethical.

Presented the reaction of the person whom you told about the unethical study

Examined if the participants in the Tuskegee study were told what the purpose of the study was, and if they were not, explained what they were told and what this tactic is commonly called

Researched, examined, and recorded information about one Web site correctly reporting the facts and one that does not

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