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? Explain how correlation is often miscast as causation. Specifically, as it relates to how cause is attributed to a variable when in fact, there is no causal relationship but only a correlation between the two variables.
? Give an example of correlations.
? Using the example, describe how correlation might be interpreted inappropriately as causation. Also describe the possible explanations for the correlation.


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I have tried to answer bullets 1 and 3 first because they are related to each other.

The conventional dictum that "correlation does not imply causation" means that correlation cannot be validly used to infer a causal relationship between the variables. This dictum should not be taken to mean that correlations cannot indicate causal relations. However, the causes underlying the correlation, if any, may be indirect and unknown. Consequently, establishing a ...

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