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Statistics in Psychological Scenarios

Does lecithin enhance memory? To test this idea, nine pairs of people matched in terms of age, sex, IQ and neurological status are given capsules containing either lecithin or a placebo at meals for a week. All are scored on a recent memory talk. A higher score indicates better task performance.

pair lecithin Placebo
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 25
14
10
28
22
9
6
17
21 23
16
10
21
18
5
5
10
12

a. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis to determine if lecithin significantly improved memory.
b. Create the appropriate graph to show the difference between the two treatment approaches.
c. People scoring below the 35th percentile in the Placebo group are going to be 'tagged' for further assessment. What score would alert researchers to the need for such assessment?
d. After review of the scoring and assessment tool, researchers decided that equal intervals could not be assumed, and that the data should be treated as a rating. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis to determine if the lecithin group has significantly better memory.

2. An instructor asks students in his class to indicate whether or not they agree with the opinions of three different speakers.

Speaker 1 Speaker 2 Speaker 3
Agree 17 29 25
Disagree 33 21 25

a. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis to determine if there is a connection between the speaker and the opinion of the students.

3. Suppose that a sociologist determines from the census report that the distribution of people in various occupations in a specific geographic area are as follows:
Agricultural
Laborers
Local/state or federal government
Professional and/or self-employed
Industrial mangers 20%
30%
30%
15%
5%

He samples individuals who are members of a particular political party to see if the distribution of occupations are the same.
Agricultural
Laborers
Local/state or federal government
Professional and/or self-employed
Industrial managers 145
310
305
78
26

a. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis to determine if the sample differs from the census report or is like the expected distribution.

4. A researcher was interested in the attitudes towards equal rights among stay at home moms and women with jobs outside the home. She creates a survey that measures attitudes toward equal rights, administers it to a sample of 20 women. However, since the survey is not standardizes, she realizes that the scores may not reflect equal intervals.

Stay at Home Jobs Outside the Home
19
22
28
32
34
37
40
42
43
46 16
18
21
26
27
29
31
33
38
39
a. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis.
b. Construct the appropriate graph to illustrate the differences between the two groups.

5. Suppose you are interested in whether or not fluency with the English language is affected by the teaching method. You are working with a school system that has a large population of children for whom English is their second language. This school system is open to trying new teaching methods, so you set up a study where Classroom 1 follows the traditional rote-learning method of teaching, Classroom 2 utilizes word games to facilitate learning, and Classroom 3 uses some online video games designed around the vocabulary words. Experienced classroom teachers are asked to rate the fluency of the non-English speaking children while watching them in a free-play situation. Higher ratings indicate greater ability to communicate in English.

Classroom 1 Classroom 2 Classroom 3
9
6
4
3
1
7
8
9
8
6 12
14
8
10
6
15
8
11
12
10 18
16
15
12
20
10
4
8
3
10

a. Conduct and interpret the appropriate analysis to determine the effect of the different teaching methods on ability to communicate.
b. Construct the appropriate graph to illustrate the differences in the teaching methods (5 pts.)

Solution Summary

This solution conducts a statistical analysis on various psychological scenarios by presenting the decision rule, calculating the test statistic, comparing it to the p-value and making a final decision on accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis.

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