Apparently there is a huge amount of misunderstanding concerning how the process of visual perception works. Specifically, many people believe (incorrectly) that at least part of looking at things involves energy going out of the eyes rather than energy coming into the eyes. This misunderstanding seems to be more common among children than among adults, but a surprisingly large number of college students still do not understand the process of seeing. Winer and Cottrell (1996) asked first graders and college students to decide what happens when we look at something does energy go out of our eyes, come into our eyes, or go both directions? The following frequency data are similar to those obtained by Winer and Cottrell. Do the data indicate a significant differences in the distribution of answers for the college students and for the children? Test at the .05 level of significance.
The solution provides step by step method for the calculation of chi square test for association. Formula for the calculation and Interpretations of the results are also included. Interactive excel sheet is included. The user can edit the inputs and obtain the complete results for a new set of data.