In general, most people in the U.S. believe that affirmative action has always put whites at a disadvantage in society. Yet, some scholars conclude that whites have benefited significantly from programs and preferences similar to affirmative action. Explain specifically what sociologist Ira Katznelson meant when he said, "Affirmative action then was white." Reflecting upon the attached article, do you think some whites still receive advantages based on their race? Why or why not?
Please see attachment for case study.
Race and Affirmative Action
Here is my opinion and the sources upon which it is based.
The way that the assignment is worded, race is conflated with gender. Affirmative action, of course, is not just about race, but gender as well. Hence, one can conclude that whites do well under affirmative action so long as you don't mention gender.
The quote from Katznelson is irrelevant, since he's talking about the end of the Jim Crow era. He's making reference to programs that privileged white people at the expense of everyone else.
I find the study you attached unscientific and biased. It is based exclusively on the reports of the "job seekers." There could have been 1,000 other variables not listed in their presentations other than their race and qualifications. How were they dressed? What was their attitude? How did they present themselves? Unfortunately, the results of this study do not square with the facts of income.
According to the Bureau of Labor ...
The race and affirmative actions are examined. The advantages based on race are determined.