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An Analysis of Judaism

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1. What are some religious explanations for the existence of evil in the world? What are some non-religious explanations?
2. How is it that an orthodox believer and an atheist can both claim to be Jewish?
3. Jews and Christians share a belief in the sacred status of the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament. To what extent is this a sufficient basis for religious cooperation and dialogue? To what extent is it not?

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I'm going to approach the assignment as three separate questions rather than as a unit.

1. This question is an umbrella. It wants to know the big picture answer to "What are the differences?" It seeks a contrasting approach: lists that do not overlap. You would structure your response by presenting the data you collect on first one and then the other. There is no expectation of evaluation or assessment. You will not present your opinion on the data you present.

You should base your data collection on known texts that can be sourced. Every religion has one. Depending on how far back in history you are expected to consider (what dates are you bound by) or how wide the geographic scope (the so-called 'western' religions only, Asian, ancient near eastern, South American, Native American, etc.) will determine the sequence that you present your information. I would suggest first determining the list of traditions you will consider and the texts they use as their source of truths. The Jewish tradition focuses on the texts that make up what is commonly called the "Hebrew Bible". Christians consider this body of work the "Old Testament". The Christian tradition makes use of that same text but with an additional collection of texts commonly referred to as the "New Testament", combining the "Old and "New" texts into their one bible. Islam recognizes the legitimacy of both those traditions but adds their 'Koran/Quran' to the list of validated texts.

If you were to go beyond these three traditions you could consider ancient creation myths from additional traditions. Egypt's Osiris/Seth battles depict the pharonic concepts of good/evil and how they play out in the world. The Babylonian creation myth 'Enuma Elish' does the same.
Then once you've presented the ...

Solution Summary

The religious explanations for the existence of evil in the world are determined. How an orthodox believer and an atheist can both claim to be Jewish is determined.