What are the main features of Christian teaching and practice, church organization and life which distinguish Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, and Protetantism from one another?
Below is your solution, attached is a word version and a map to the early Christian Empire under Constantine I. I focused on the history of Christianity to give you a picture of the core belief system in discussion and then proceeded to discuss the schisms that divided the Catholic Christianity established by Theodosius giving us the Christiniaty of various faith & sects that we know today.
Christianity: A History
One of the biggest monotheistic religions on Earth, Christian followers are segregated into various sects that resulted from schisms & breaks that can be traced to the very beginning when Christianity was established as a faith, an offshoot of Judaism following the death & crucifixion of Yeshouah of Nazariah, the Rabbi, known to Christian Followers as Jesus Christ the Redeemer. The real-life Jesus in his lifetime was a rabbi and his teachings were based on the Torah, the old scriptures of Judaism. In his early 30's Jesus sought to open the eyes of his fellow Jews to the corruption and degradation of Morals practiced even in their own holy temples. His popularity among the faithful angered the Rabbinate in Jerusalem more so after he claimed that he was the 'Son of God' sent to show 'man the Way' to forgiveness & everlasting life. For this he was crucified, not by the Decree of the Romans that ruled Israel then through the puppet King Herod but according to the mob-crowd that gathered to see the spectacle of his scourging & his eventual Crucifixion.
His death elevated him to the Status of a deity among his apostles, students & followers and they sought to deliver his 'news' to the world - seek forgiveness from God, live a righteous & pious life and follow his commandments. His apostles travelled far and wide in the Roman world to share his teachings. In the early days though they were prosecuted. The Emperor Nero was never fond of Christians preferring his Roman Pantheon of Gods & Goddesses. He blamed the Christians without proof for the Great Fire of Rome in A.D. 64. Early Christian leaders Peter & Paul were martyred in Rome through Nero's cruelty. The message of a monotheistic & forgiving God who pardons & prepares a life of divine eternity became popular though, despite the best efforts of Roman Pagan Churches throughout the Empire. From Antioch to Alexandria, Christianity took root & ceremonies & masses were held secretly in houses & caves. In Cappadocia in Turkey the Christians created an 'underground city' under the mountains to freely practice their faith. The popularity and appeal of Christianity eventually overtook Roman Pagan Beliefs and dwarfed Judaism to the point that for Constantine I to hold his Empire together, he needed to convert to Christianity. And he did by issuing the Edict of Milan in AD 313. The Roman Empire established by the Caesars became the first Holy Roman Empire ruled by a Christian Emperor with Christianity central to secular, civic, political & personal affairs.
This meant that the entire Holy Roman Empire (see attached map) converted to Christianity. From the British Isles to the Mid-East reaches of Constantine's empire, into the Balkans, Yeshoua mi Nazariyah (Jesus of Nazareth in Hebrew) became the Central monotheistic figure in their faith. By the 1st AD, the 'scriptures', composed of the old 'testament' from the Jewish Holy Book the Torah and the 'new testament' from the 27 Chapters collected by the followers of Christ written by his various Apostles & Disciples became the 'bible' that is the centre of the Christian world to this day. When Constantine converted to Christianity, he based his policies and ...
This solution provides a comprehensive discussion comparing the similarities and differences of Eastern Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism & Protestantism - Christian Faiths all. Going beyond comparison, the solution traces back the very beginnings of each of the said beliefs concisely to show where & how the schisms/separatist movements happened in the history of Christianity. Specifically the solution seekuments to establish what the arguments were about that resulted in the schism from the debate on the Divinity of Jesus Christ after the Council of Nicea splitting the early Christian world between that of the Catholics of Rome and the Orthodox Christians of the East to the period of Martin Luther when the Roman Catholic Church was rocked with rebellion & revolutions due to a crisis of Faith by way of corruption & politics. Attached with the solution is its word version for easy reference & printing. Also provided is a map of the Christian World during the time of the first Christian Roman Emperor, Constantine.