Imagine that two theorists (Freud, Jung, Adler, or Rogers) were invited to speak at a symposium on personality theory development and are both on the stages? Someone in the audience raises her hand and ask "So what do you think was your theory's greats contribution to our current understanding of human personality?" What would each of the theorist you chose say in answer to the question?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 17, 2018, 1:04 pm ad1c9bdddf
(a) Freud's (1926; 1962) theoretical formulations was based on intrapsychic processes (i.e., mental processes). For instance, his psychodynamic theories involved looking within the individual's unconscious conflicts to uncover problems that were latent in his or her conscious awareness. Moreover, Freud's theoretical premises were developmental focus, given his work with children. He would say in answer to this question that his greatest contribution to the field of psychoanalysis was his work with children. For example, Freudian concepts are used today in child abuse and child neglect cases. Two theories that are contemporary views of his concepts are the Object Relations theory and Play therapy approaches in the investigation of children's psychological problems. The ORT theory is a contemporary understanding of Freud's psychoanalysis on the unconscious and individual mind (Zornig & Levy, 2011).They present a view of psychoanalysis in which the child is placed in a "holding" environment where he or she is offered love and attention that is not being received at home. According to Zornig & Levy, ORT emphasizes the importance of maternal care, and the continuation of self during infancy.
Play therapy demonstrates the positive impact of play in addressing general behavioral problems. (e. g. Subbakrishna, 1999 as cited in Bratton, Ray, Edwards, & Landroth, 2009). According to Bratton et al., both Melanie Klein (1932) and Anna Freud (1928) developed techniques of play therapy. It too has roots in psychoanalysis. For instance, Klein's work was with infants who she believed had an inborn desire for gratification related to ORT was adopted in her play therapy with children. Underlying the need of Play therapy is belief that the child is seeking more attention from his or her parents. The constant negative behavior may be related to the need for attention from the child's mother. According to Bratton et al (2009), Play therapy is based on the notion that play is fundamental to the ...
This solution discusses the orientation of four psychology theorist, and apply their views to contemporary thought.
Psychology, Personality and Theory
I have the text for these Multiple Choice questions, so the best answer is the only thing I need for review, as I can then look up the response in the text:
1. Psychologists who study personality want to know how personalities _______ and how to _______ personality.
A. change; control
B. self-actualize; mold
C. develop; assess
D. divide; treat
2. The "selfish beast" is to the "executive" as the
A. ego is to the superego.
B. superego is to the libido.
C. libido is to the superego.
D. id is to the ego.
3. What is the major responsibility of the ego?
A. to find socially acceptable ways for the id to be gratified
B. to prevent the death instinct from destroying the ego ideal
C. to fulfill the desire of the superego in moral matters
D. to make sure that the process of identification is not hampered
4. If John is described as cruel, pushy, messy, and disorderly, Freud would refer to his personality as
A. oral aggressive.
B. anal retentive.
C. oral receptive.
D. anal expulsive.
5. The Oedipal complex and the Electra complex develop and are resolved during the
A. oral stage.
B. anal stage.
C. phallic stage.
D. genital stage.
6. Maladjustment is seen by Rogers as resulting from
A. a discrepancy between the ideal and the real self.
B. rejection and fear of certain ego ideals.
C. faulty reinforcement determinations.
D. poor childhood experiences.
7. A situation, circumstance, or event that threatens the individual and requires some form of coping mechanism best defines
8. You enjoyed your general psychology course so much that you decided to register for more psychology courses next semester. However, you are among the last to register and all the desirable psychology courses are already filled. The stress you are feeling is the result of
D. personality inadequacy.
9. Suppose you have a choice between staying home alone for the weekend or going to visit your aunt, neither of which you really want to do. Which type of conflict are you experiencing?
D. double approach-avoidance
10. Carla received a ticket for speeding that she feels is unjust. She can pay the ticket and forget it, or she can hire a lawyer, pay her fees, and perhaps be vindicated for being unjustly charged. Carla is tense and upset because she is experiencing a(n) _______ conflict.
11. Nelson has been offered a promotion to a promising job position in a small town in an isolated area. He likes the town he lives in, his children love their school, but his present job is a dead-end job with little chance for promotion. Nelson is tense, upset, and is not sleeping well at night. He is experiencing a(n) _______ conflict.
D. multiple approach-avoidance
12. Regarding positive and negative life events, which of the following is true?
A. Positive life events always offset the stressful effects of negative life events.
B. Positive life events can create stress.
C. Stressful life events always produce pressure.
D. Stressful life events always produce tension.
13. Which of the following is true about stress reactions?
A. They produce a physiological reaction only.
B. Psychological reactions happen independently of physiological reactions.
C. They produce both a physiological and psychological reactions.
D. Physiological reactions differ depending on the stressor.
14. How does the sympathetic nervous system respond during the alarm reaction of the general adaptation syndrome?
A. It increases blood flow to the intestines.
B. It increases blood flow to the skeletal muscles.
C. It decreases perspiration.
D. It does all of these.
15. Of the following, which is the most valid criterion for abnormality?
A. the amount of family conflict that results from the behavior
B. if behavior deviates from social norms
C. whether the behavior is maladaptive or destructive
D. how unusual the behavior is
16. Which of the following statements is most consistent with the discontinuity hypothesis of abnormality?
A. "A behavior that is taken to a dangerous extreme can be considered abnormal."
B. "Alcoholism is a disease, not a character flaw."
C. "Everybody has breakdowns once in a while."
D. "Someone with a personality disorder is simply an enormous jerk."
17. Edwin is afraid to ride in elevators and he quit his job because he was being moved to the 27th floor of his office building. He would probably be classified as exhibiting a(n)
A. phobic reaction.
B. general anxiety disorder.
C. somatoform reaction.
D. hysterical reaction.
18. Jennifer worries constantly about grades, classes, and about how her family and friends feel about her. She seems to be anxious about most things in her life. Her behavior best fits the diagnosis of
A. a social phobia.
B. generalized anxiety disorder.
D. borderline panic disorder.
19. Flashbacks, feelings of guilt over their survival, and pervasive tenseness are characteristic of persons suffering from
A. IV drug use.
B. a phobic disorder.
C. posttraumatic stress disorder.
D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
20. Obsessions are ________, while compulsions are ________.
A. anxiety-provoking thoughts; irresistible urges to engage in behaviors
B. irresistible urges to engage in behaviors; anxiety-provoking thoughts
C. vague uneasy sensations of tension; the desire to run away from a threatening situation
D. the desire to run away from a threatening situation; vague uneasy sensations of tension
21. A person who flips back and forth between several consistent but very different personalities has a(n) ________ disorder.
22. Martin thinks he is no good. Lately, he has been spending most of his time sleeping and has stopped going to work. He only eats once a day. Martin is probably experiencing
B. bipolar disorder.
D. major depression.
23. Max had been in the hospital for twelve years. Everyone knew him, but they didn't call him Max. He insisted that they call him J.C. and that he had died once for their sins. Max suffered from delusions of ________, a symptom of ________ schizophrenia.
A. persecution; disorganized
B. reference; catatonic
C. grandeur; paranoid
D. paranoia; undifferentiated
24. People who violate social rules and laws, take advantage of others, and feel little guilt about their behavior have
A. antisocial personalities.
B. paranoid schizophrenia.
C. affective psychosis.
D. depersonalization disorders.
25. Psychotherapy is a ________ process used by ________.
A. general; the general public
B. general; trained professionals
C. specialized; the general public
D. specialized; trained professionals
26. A therapist revealed information about a client to the client's family members without the client's consent. his is
27. The underlying belief of psychoanalytic psychotherapy is that emotional problems result from
A. repressed conflicts.
B. conscious indecision over major stressors.
C. excessive sexual activity.
D. the inability to feel guilt.
28. Why are client-centered therapists considered nondirective?
A. They are unconcerned about the causes of their clients problems.
B. They encourage clients to free associate their thoughts and feelings.
C. They encourage clients to find answers to their own problems.
D. They attempt to gain insight into unconscious conflicts.
29. The therapy based on the assumption that abnormal behavior is due to faulty ways of thinking and believing is
A. humanistic psychotherapy.
B. cognitive therapy.
C. Gestalt therapy.
30. The most common form of medical therapy is
A. drug therapy.
D. frontal lobotomy.