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measurement of trait and state personality characteristics

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Why are the measurements of trait and state personality characteristics useful for coaching? This area is emphasized.

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Generally, trait theorists view personality from a different perspective than psychoanalysts. Rather than explain the hidden aspects of personality, trait theorists have focused on the predispositions that underlie our actions. On the basis of factor analysis, these theorists have isolated distinct dimensions of personality: for instance, the BigFive trait dimensions -emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness.

To assess traits, objective personality inventories have been developed such as the empirically derived Minnesota Multiple Personality Inventory (MMPI) that has been made widely available through computerized testing. Overall, these tests are most helpful, when used to assess those who are emotionally troubled.

Even though critics question the consistency with which traits are expressed due to the fact that human behavior varies widely from situation to situation, people's average behavior across different situations has been proven to be fairly consistent. Thus, people's traits do actually persist through time. According to David G. Myers (1999) in "Exploring Psychology", the immediate situation powerfully influences a person's ...

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References are included to feature means of trait characteristics assessment.

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Leadership: Personality Traits and Characteristics

Each year, many business colleges and news organizations honor someone that they have selected as the business leader of the year. If asked, most people could easily identify someone that they believe to be a great leader. Consider whom you would select. Whether in the workplace, community, or government, this individual would embody the traits that you consider important in a leader. Reflect on the personality characteristics of this leader. Also, consider how this individual influenced the culture of the organization or environment in which he or she participated.


1. What traits and personality characteristics are important for leadership? If someone does not possess these traits, can they still be an effective leader? Can these traits be learned?

2. Can a positive trait also become or be perceived as a weakness? Explain.

3. How do these traits vary between cultures? How can leaders who lead in an international context deal with multicultural perceptions? Give specific examples.

Kindly assist with these 3 questions. Please address all areas. Please also include any scholarly references.

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