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Anxiolytics and Sedative Hypnotics

List the anxiolytics and sedative hypnotics by class. What are the primary side effects and contraindications of these medications?

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1. List the anxiolytics and sedative hypnotics by class.

Anxiolytic and
Sedative-hypnotics Generic Name Trade Name
Benzodiazepines Alprazolam Xanax
Chlordiazepoxide Librium
Clonazepam Klonopin
Clorazepate Tranxene
Diazepam Valium
Estazolam ProSom
Flurazepam Dalmane
Lorazepam Ativan
Midazolam Versed
Oxazepam Serax
Quazepam Doral
Temazepam Restoril
Triazolam Halcion
Halazepam Paxipam
Prazepam Centrax
Non-Benzodiazepine anxiolytics
and hypnotics Buspirone BuSpar
Chloral hydrate Noctec
Zolpidem tartrate Ambien

2. What are the primary side effects and contraindications of these medications?

Sedative and hypnotic drugs are central nervous system depressants. They depress behavior, moderate excitement, induce calmness, and may produce drowsiness or even loss of consciousness. The sedative-hypnotics are used clinically as antianxiety agents, muscle relaxants, antiepileptics, and as preanesthetic medications. Drugs in this category include barbiturates, benzodiazepines, and anesthetics.

? History of Sedative-hypnotics
? Behavioral Effects in Humans
? Mechanism of Action
? Side Affects
? Interactions

History of Sedative-hypnotics

In 1903, barbital, a derivative of barbituric acid, was introduced. Its sleep-inducing and anxiolytic effects made it very popular in clinical medicine. It soon became popular as a treatment for anxiety and as the first "sleeping pill". In 1912, phenobarbital was introduced. Phenobarbital, in addition to sedative-hypnotic properties, has anticonvulsant properties and has become one of the most important pharmacological treatments for epilepsy. The success of barbital and phenobarbital spawned the synthesis of over 2,500 barbiturates. Of these many barbiturate analogues, only about 20 are still on the market. The effects of these various barbiturates are generally similar, differing primarily in potency and duration of action.

The partial separation of sedative-hypnotic-anesthetic from anticonvulsant properties, found in phenobarbital, led researchers to search for agents with more selective effects on the functions of the CNS. In the late 1930's, relatively nonsedative anticonvulsants were developed (e.g., phenytoin and trimethadione). In 1957 the first ...

Solution Summary

This solution lists the anxiolytics and sedative hypnotics by class. It also identifies the primary side effects and contraindications of these medications.

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