1. What are the differences between the experimental and control group?
2. What are the weaknesses or limitations of the naturalistic or field study method of research?
3. What are the advantages of using animals rather than humans in research?
4. What did the rise of behaviorism result in and why has behaviorism been of such popularity among psychologists?
5. What are the essential differences between classical and operant conditioning?
6. Why does high correlation not prove causation?
7. What are the differences between psychiatrists and psychologists?
8. Be able to distinguish between the independent and dependant variables
1) In an experiment, you want to test to see if a variable (treatment) has any effect on behavior. In order for this to occur, you need to have at least 2 groups of people - one group of people who will receive the treatment - the experimental group, and the other group who does not receive the treatment - the control group. The reason why you need the control group is to use them as a benchmark. If differences exist between the group, you might be able to state that the treatment caused the differences. If you don't have a control group, you might not be able to see if a difference did exist.
2) In a naturalistic study you are observing activities that are occurring around you. The benefits is that you can witness first hand what is happening , but there are several weaknesses
a. You can't actual control what is going on around you and randomly assign people to either the control or experimental group. This then becomes a "quasi-experiment"
b. You can observe what is going on, but you can't actually stop to ask participants what they are thinking, why they are acting in a certain way - you can only make assumptions as to what is happening
3) When using animals, you can subject them to many different types of experiments that you would not be able to subject to humans. When doing experiments with humans, you have to ethically tell them that they are in fact in part of an experiment, and they have to know the purpose of the study before they sign the consent form. This might mean that the humans know the extent of the study before they even begin. This will then bias the results. This does not occur with animals, so when they are subject to an experiment they behave naturally, allowing researchers to observe their natural behavior
4) The rise in behaviorism resulted in everything seeing all activities (acting, thinking, and feeling) as behaviors, and thus, all behaviors can be explained. The researcher who made behaviorism popular was Watson. With his behaviorism, Watson put the emphasis on external behaviour of people and their reactions on given situations, rather than the internal, mental state of those people. In his opinion, the analysis of behaviours and reactions was the only objective method to get insight in the human actions.He helped show that all behaviors happen for a reason, they could be learned, or conditioned.
"Psychology as the behaviorist views it is a purely objective experimental branch of natural science. Its theoretical goal is the prediction and control of behavior. Introspection forms no essential part of its methods, nor is the scientific value of its data dependent upon the readiness with which they lend themselves to interpretation in terms of consciousness. The behaviorist, in his efforts to get a unitary scheme of animal response, recognizes no dividing line between man and brute. The behavior of man, with all of its refinement and complexity, forms only a part of the behaviorist's total scheme of investigation."
A nice ...
11 Developmental Psychology Questions
I need help with these questions"
1. Ricardo believes that, rather than progressing through a sequence of stages, mental processes gradually get more complex and efficient. Ricardo is most likely a proponent of ____________________.
Information processing theory
2. Louis discovers that the experiences he has in his developmental psychology class help him to deal with the children he works with at a daycare center. This relationship is best described by Bronfenbrenner's notion of _____________________.
3. Dr. Lund stages a fire drill at the elementary school in order to study how children respond to potential emergency situations. Dr. Lund's method would best be described as a(n) _____________________.
4. You are reading the results of a study that tracked how a particular individual's religious beliefs changed over the course of her life. The study you are reading is most likely a(n) ______________________ study.
5. Which statement is not consistent with ethical research?
Subject responses should be confidential.
Never tell subjects if they've been deceived.
Minimize the risks to subjects.
Give subjects the right to withdraw from the research without penalty.
6. Which results would not support the idea that genes play a significant role in behavior?
finding dizygotic twins to be more similar than monozygotic twins
finding children to be more similar to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents
finding similarities between biological siblings
finding monozygotic twins to be more similar than pairs of unrelated individuals
7. Halley is 40-years-old, and she and her daughter Berry, 20, are both currently pregnant. Which statement concerning these two mothers is most accurate?
Berry has a greater risk of giving birth to a baby with sickle-cell anemia.
Halley is twice as fertile as Berry.
Berry's odds of having a baby with Down Syndrome are three times higher than Halley's.
Halley has a greater risk of having a miscarriage.
8. How many of the following (aspirin, nicotine, cocaine, caffeine) are potential teratogens?
9. Maternal stress is most likely to negatively impact a developing embryo/fetus when that stress is _____________________________.
intermittent and extreme
intermittent and moderate
chronic and extreme
chronic and moderate
10. Huntington's disease is an unusual genetic disorder in that it is a fatal disease caused by dominant alleles that ________________________.
impact late enough in life so that the individual can reproduce
are controllable through diet
both must come from mom
strike only males
11. Self-reports are a rather easy and quick way to gather information, there are fewer potential ethical issues than many other forms of research, and they are relatively inexpensive. Why aren't they the method of choice for developmental research?
respondents can refuse to participate
selective non-responses to certain questions
respondents don't tell the truth or distort their beliefs or facts about their life (socially desirable responses)
respondents cannot elaborate on answers and can only choose from available option