When would it be better (under what conditions) to use the non-equivalent groups design? Please also provide a real world example along with you answer
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A non-equivalent control group design is a pretest-posttest design in which the participants are not randomly assigned to groups. There are typically treatment and control groups, but the groups are not generated by random assignment.
Non-equivalent control groups are used when random assignment is impossible, difficult, or impractical. It would be impossible if the groups already existed such as students in two different classes, or if no sampling frame existed (such as with homeless populations). It would be difficult if generating a sampling frame from which to randomize would require a lot of ...
This post describes what a non-equivalent control group design is, details the conditions under which such designs are used, and describe the design's suceptibility to reliability and validity threats.