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"Psychology's Early Schools"

Identify and briefly describe the four "Psychology's Early Schools" and who is associated with each. Choose one to explain in detail. How did this school contribute to the modern development of psychology?

Define classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning. Please give an example of both types of conditioning. How are these types alike? How are they different?

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The four early schools are:

(1) Structuralism: The structuralists tried to provide scientific analysis of conscious experience by breaking it down into its different components. This school evolved out of the work of James, Wundt and their associates.

(2) Behaviorism: American psychologist John B. Watson introduced this school in 1913. Watson and his followers believed that observable behavior, not inner experience, was the only reliable source of information. This concentration on observable events was a reaction against the structuralists' emphasis on introspection. The behaviorists also highlighted the importance of the environment in determining an individual's behavior.

(3) Gestalt psychology: This school developed as a reaction against structuralism. Gestalt psychologists were of the view that human beings and other animals perceive the external world as an organized pattern, not as individual sensations. This school was founded by a German ...

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Identify and briefly describe the four "Psychology's Early Schools" and who is associated with each.

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