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Cognitive Roots of an Attitude

A brief description of an attitude you currently hold that was formed through affective or cognitive influences.

Describe or explain how the attitude was formed.

Describe any cultural or environmental factors that may have influenced the formation of the attitude.

Support your response with some of the following references, resources and scholarly literature.


Banaji, M. R., & Heiphetz, L. (2010). Attitudes. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 353-393). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Handbook of Social Psychology, 5th Edition by S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.). Copyright 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Books. Reprinted by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Books via the Copyright Clearance Center. Read pp. 370-376

Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Chapter 6: Attitude formation. Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An Introduction to theory and research. Retrieved from

Edwards, K. (1990). The interplay of affect and cognition in attitude formation and change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(2), 202-216.

Staats, A. W., & Staats, C. K. (1958). Attitudes established by classical conditioning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57(1), 37-40.

Zajonc, R. B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9(2, Pt. 2), 1-27.

Zanna, M. P., Kiesler, C. A., & Pilkonis, P. A. (1970). Positive and negative attitudinal affect established by classical conditioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 14(4), 321-328.

Optional Resources Cacioppo, J. T., Marshall-Goodell, B. S., Tassinary, L. G., & Petty, R. E. (1992). Rudimentary determinants of attitudes: Classical conditioning is more effective when prior knowledge about the attitude stimulus is low than high. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28(3), 207-233.

Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. D. (1991). Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the Eccles' expectancy-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3(1), 7-35.

Fishbein, M., & Middlestadt, S. (1995). Noncognitive effects on attitude formation and change: Factor artifact? Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4(2), 181-202.

Hughey, J. B., Sundstrom, E., & Lounsbury, J. Q. W. (1985). Attitudes toward nuclear power: A longitudinal analysis of expectancy-value models. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 6(1), 75-91.

Krosnick, J. A., Betz, A. L., Jussim, L. J., & Lynn, A. R. (1992). Subliminal conditioning of attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(2), 152-162.

Zajonc, R. B. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35(2), 151-175.

Solution Preview

Cognition and affect plays a pivotal role in the formation and maintenance of attitudes held toward people, issues, objects and life's stressors. Cognition in general and in relationship to the proposed question has all to do with the way we process the world in which we live as well as the way we react to it. Affect has all to do with the way in which we respond to the world in which we live. Cognition and Affect intersect every day, and determines our success or non-success in dealing with the world in which we live. Classical conditioning ...

Solution Summary

The following posting discusses the cognitive roots of an attitude.