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routes of administration, frequency, and time of day of administering medicines

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This job lists and explains all the routes of administration, frequency, and time of day of administering medicines.

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Routes of administration can broadly be divided into:
topical: local effect, substance is applied directly where its action is desired
enteral: desired effect is systemic (non-local), substance is given via the digestive tract
parenteral: desired effect is systemic, substance is given by other routes than the digestive tract
The following is a list of some routes of administration.
epicutaneous (application onto the skin), e.g. allergy testing, topical local anesthesia
inhalational, e.g. asthma medications
enema, e.g. contrast media for imaging of the bowel
eye drops (onto the conjunctiva), e.g. antibiotics for conjuncitivitis
ear drops - such as antibiotics and corticosteroids for otitis externa
intranasal, e.g. decongestant nasal sprays

by mouth (orally), many drugs as tablets, capsules, or drops
by gastric feeding tube, duodenal feeding tube, or gastrostomy, many drugs and enteral nutrition
rectally, various drugs in suppository or enema form

Parenteral by injection or infusion
intravenous (into a vein), e.g. many drugs, total parenteral nutrition
intraarterial (into an artery), e.g. vasodilator drugs in the treatment of vasospasm and thrombolytic drugs for treatment of embolism
intramuscular (into a muscle), e.g. many vaccines
subcutaneous (under the skin), e.g. insulin
intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow) is, in effect, an indirect intravenous access because the bone marrow drains directly into the venous system. This route is occasionally used for drugs and fluids in emergency medicine and paediatrics when intravenous access is difficult
intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin testing some allergens, and also for tatoos

Parenteral (other than injection or infusion)
transdermal (diffusion through the intact skin), e.g. transdermal opioid patches in pain therapy
transmucosal (diffusion through a mucous membrane), e.g. cocaine snorting, sublingual nitroglycerine
inhalational, e.g. inhalational anesthetics

intraperitoneal (infusion or injection into the peritoneal cavity), e.g. peritoneal dialysis
epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space), e.g. epidural anesthesia
intrathecal (injection or infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid), e.g. antibiotics, spinal anesthesia

Principles for the administration of medicines
In exercising your professional accountability in the best interests of the patients, the doctor must:
know the therapeutic uses of the medicine to be administered, its normal dosage, side effects, precautions and contra-indications

be certain of the identity of the patient to whom the medicine is to be

be aware of the patient's care plan

check that the prescription, or the label on medicine dispensed by a pharmacist,
is clearly written and unambiguous

have considered the dosage, method of administration, route and timing of the
administration in the context of the condition of the patient and co-existing

check the expiry date of the medicine to be administered

check that the patient is not allergic to the medicine before administering it

contact the prescriber or another authorised prescriber without delay where
contra-indications to the prescribed medicine are discovered, where the patient
develops a reaction to the medicine, or where assessment of the patient indicates
that the medicine is no longer suitable

make a clear, accurate and immediate record of all medicine administered,
intentionally withheld or refused by the patient, ensuring that any written
entries and the signature are clear and legible; it is also your responsibility to
ensure that a record is made when delegating the task of administering.
Some drug administrations can require complex calculations to ensure that the
correct volume or quantity of medication is administered. In these ...

Solution Summary

Circumstances involved in administering medicines are ntoed.

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Research Paper Description

In this research paper you will explore in detail one of the statistical approaches to research discussed in the course, implementing and applying it in the context of a specific application or methodological study. This will help you gain a deeper understanding of the topic of your choice, as well as to gain experience in translating these ideas into practice.

You should begin by choosing an application domain, data set, or methodological question of interest to you. This may be a topic presented in the course or simply a topic about which you are curious. You are encouraged to choose research problems relevant to your own research interests and activities.

The learner will find three (3) relevant research articles which:

support the importance of your problem,
discuss previous work on modeling/analysis in the area, and
cover technical aspects of the methods from class you will apply.
Research Paper Guide and Grade Scale
The Research Paper Guide is a systematic approach to applying problem solving skills using scientific method. This approach will facilitate problem solving/writing skills not only in academic areas, but also apply to work and personal situations.


Describe the issue, why it was selected, the perspective of the approach, and the scope of the paper. In essence, describe in this area what is being covered in the paper. Be specific and to the point. This is an important part of the paper. The introduction serves to engage the reader and defines the paper's scope.

Statement of the Problem

Describe why the issue/topic is relevant, a problem/issue. It is important to provide literature sources in support of the importance of the need/issue/topic. For example, if discussing the impact of malnutrition on the brain development of American children, cite literature quantifying the number. Discuss the impact of the problem/issue. Overall, what makes this topic/issue so important that you are spending time/energy researching it? What happens if nothing is done about the problem? The problem or topic is to be stated as either a hypothesis, "Children who watch violent television, more than four hours a day, exhibit more aggressive behavior than children who watch less than two hours a day." Or, the problem can be stated in terms of research question(s). 1) Do children who watch more than three hours a day exhibit more aggressive behavior than those who watch fewer than three hours a day? Or, 2) What is the association of aggressive behavior in children and violent media?

Literature Review

In this section, process and develop a written conceptual framework of the issue or problem that is being researched. For example, if the topic of the research is the correlation of violent video games and children's aggressive behavior, the student finds published research studies supporting their assumption or hypothesis. It is generally good to also bring in a study that refutes the position of the researcher. Then the researcher explains using appropriate literature sources, why the opposing position should not be supported. The literature review is actually the making of a case for your hypothesis or research questions. Comments as to the worth, validity and impact of the research are also found in this section. The literature review should present a comprehensive review of the historical and current literature in the topic area. In general, the literature review should:

Identify what is the topic, what has happened in the specific research of the topic (describe the study, sample, findings, important points from the discussion in the research article - describe any variables that may influence the findings of the research).
Address any key issues; political, social, legal, ethical implications the literature reports. What is projected if nothing is done; what has been tried? Support this section with relevant literatures/resource citations.
If there are pros and cons of a topic/issue, explore holistically a review of the literature reflecting alternative positions.
The presentation of this section is the students understanding and conceptualization of what was found in the literature in support of their hypothesis or research question. It is not a series of article abstracts.


In this section, summarize and present the major findings. Select, minimally, three of those, in your judgment, that are the most important from the research that was reviewed.

In this section the findings, are presented, discussion of them are found in the following section, Discussion.


This is an expansion of the findings section. It is presented in narrative format and based on the research and your critical thinking/analysis of the situation/issue. This would include:

The topic/issue. Be specific.
Analyze and synthesize the literature:
Support your perspective with relevant literature. This is an important section as it reflects your ability to analyze the problem, critique what has happened, and then to hypothesize potential solutions for the problem.
Implications of the findings from the studies.
Evaluation of the literature: quality research, bias, concerns with validity/reliability, sample size, findings.

In this section, summarize in a general way but completely, what the paper covered. Restate the research questions or hypothesis. Discuss: why the topic was selected; the problem/issue briefly stated; the approach that was used; findings; solutions and suggestions or ideas that you as the researcher may have. In this section, a reader should be able to peruse the conclusion/summary and have a good idea what the researcher did and what was found.


Here include all resources used in the development of this paper. Use American Psychology Association Style. All literature/computer/interview/resources will be annotated. This section is graded on the appropriate format for the references, the quality of the study/literature relative to the topic and the annotation.

Content and Organization of the Paper

Should be 8-10 pages in length excluding title page, reference page, and any appendices.
Cover sheet - use the APA cover sheet style
Outline - use the format listed above as the major headers - specific topic components are secondary headings (see APA Format)
Abstract of the paper - the summary and conclusion of the paper may be used for this
Body of the paper - introduction, problem statement, background of the problem, issue/ needs/solutions and conclusion/summary
Any material to be placed in an appendix (i.e., tables, maps, etc.)
References - a reference listing using APA format, with the reference material annotated


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