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    routes of administration, frequency, and time of day of administering medicines

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    This job lists and explains all the routes of administration, frequency, and time of day of administering medicines.

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    Routes of administration can broadly be divided into:
    topical: local effect, substance is applied directly where its action is desired
    enteral: desired effect is systemic (non-local), substance is given via the digestive tract
    parenteral: desired effect is systemic, substance is given by other routes than the digestive tract
    The following is a list of some routes of administration.
    epicutaneous (application onto the skin), e.g. allergy testing, topical local anesthesia
    inhalational, e.g. asthma medications
    enema, e.g. contrast media for imaging of the bowel
    eye drops (onto the conjunctiva), e.g. antibiotics for conjuncitivitis
    ear drops - such as antibiotics and corticosteroids for otitis externa
    intranasal, e.g. decongestant nasal sprays

    by mouth (orally), many drugs as tablets, capsules, or drops
    by gastric feeding tube, duodenal feeding tube, or gastrostomy, many drugs and enteral nutrition
    rectally, various drugs in suppository or enema form

    Parenteral by injection or infusion
    intravenous (into a vein), e.g. many drugs, total parenteral nutrition
    intraarterial (into an artery), e.g. vasodilator drugs in the treatment of vasospasm and thrombolytic drugs for treatment of embolism
    intramuscular (into a muscle), e.g. many vaccines
    subcutaneous (under the skin), e.g. insulin
    intraosseous infusion (into the bone marrow) is, in effect, an indirect intravenous access because the bone marrow drains directly into the venous system. This route is occasionally used for drugs and fluids in emergency medicine and paediatrics when intravenous access is difficult
    intradermal, (into the skin itself) is used for skin testing some allergens, and also for tatoos

    Parenteral (other than injection or infusion)
    transdermal (diffusion through the intact skin), e.g. transdermal opioid patches in pain therapy
    transmucosal (diffusion through a mucous membrane), e.g. cocaine snorting, sublingual nitroglycerine
    inhalational, e.g. inhalational anesthetics

    intraperitoneal (infusion or injection into the peritoneal cavity), e.g. peritoneal dialysis
    epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space), e.g. epidural anesthesia
    intrathecal (injection or infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid), e.g. antibiotics, spinal anesthesia

    Principles for the administration of medicines
    In exercising your professional accountability in the best interests of the patients, the doctor must:
    know the therapeutic uses of the medicine to be administered, its normal dosage, side effects, precautions and contra-indications

    be certain of the identity of the patient to whom the medicine is to be

    be aware of the patient's care plan

    check that the prescription, or the label on medicine dispensed by a pharmacist,
    is clearly written and unambiguous

    have considered the dosage, method of administration, route and timing of the
    administration in the context of the condition of the patient and co-existing

    check the expiry date of the medicine to be administered

    check that the patient is not allergic to the medicine before administering it

    contact the prescriber or another authorised prescriber without delay where
    contra-indications to the prescribed medicine are discovered, where the patient
    develops a reaction to the medicine, or where assessment of the patient indicates
    that the medicine is no longer suitable

    make a clear, accurate and immediate record of all medicine administered,
    intentionally withheld or refused by the patient, ensuring that any written
    entries and the signature are clear and legible; it is also your responsibility to
    ensure that a record is made when delegating the task of administering.
    Some drug administrations can require complex calculations to ensure that the
    correct volume or quantity of medication is administered. In these ...

    Solution Summary

    Circumstances involved in administering medicines are ntoed.