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    Child Development: ADHD

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    Chantel is an eight year old child recently diagnosed with ADHD. Chantel exhibits moderate hyperactivity and has great difficulty attending to the lessons and meeting time at school. Chantel seems to "forget" instructions easily and often does not complete assignments appropriately. She frequently forgets to turn in her homework or complete her classroom job.

    Chantel is a warm and loving child, but is frequently impulsive and this can result in grabbing and sometimes even pushing another child. Chantel does not seem to know her own strength and often when frustrated or angry, regresses to more primitive behavior to solve problems. Although Chantel desperately wants to play with other children, most of her classmates (particularly the girls) will not play with her during recess or invite her for playdates. Chantel is often seen playing alone or wandering around aimlessly during recess.

    Chantel is a strong, athletic child. She quickly learns new sports and her attention seems greatly improved when playing structured sports games. She runs quickly, has excellent eye-hand coordination and is flexible and agile. Despite having few friends, she is often the first picked for sports teams during gym class.

    Chantel lives with both parents. She has a secure attachment to both of her parents, but they do admit that her activity level, forgetfulness, and impulsivity can be trying. She has significant trouble completing her homework and often forgets to put it in her book bag to return to school. Chantel always seems to be in "trouble". For example, she forgot to close her hamster's cage and it was lost, roaming around the house for two days. Chantel's parents express worry over her academic performance and are concerned that she is often scapegoated at school when things go wrong. They are also concerned about her social development and her lack of friends in her peer group. Her parents express some relief at knowing the "diagnosis" and the reason for her behavior.

    Part I: Analysis

    As the child development specialist, please analyze this case and design an appropriate intervention plan. In your 4- to 6-page paper, be sure to discuss the following:

    1.An analysis of the major issues, cognitively, socially/emotionally, and physically, that are affecting this child. Make sure to address each domain.
    2.An analysis of the issues at home
    3.A discussion of the issues at school
    Part II: Intervention

    Devise an effective intervention plan for Chantel. Make sure to discuss interventions for cognitive, social/emotional, and physical domains. You should provide a detailed discussion of at least two interventions per domain.

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    Solution Preview

    (1) Part I: Case Study-An analysis of the major issues, cognitively, socially/emotionally, and physically, that are affecting this child. Make sure to address each domain.

    A Case Study

    Chantel is experiencing symptoms associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder that include inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity asdescribed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR [APA], 2000). ADHD is a behavioral disorder that affects children's lives both socially and cognitively since they have difficulty understanding social rules. For instance, Chantel is unable to control behavioral impulses. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria, "Symptoms of ADHD lead to impulsive symptoms and problems in familial, interpersonal and educational roles" (p. 89). Chantel is exhibiting signs of emotional problems that manifests in difficulty in organizing tasks; failing to give close attention, becoming distracted, and expereincing difficulty in playing or engaging in leisure activities.

    Chantel also forgets instructions and does not complete assignments for school. Research suggests that cognition may play a specific role in this type of behavior associated with ADHD. For example, Skirbekk, Hansen, Oerbeck, & Kristensen (2011), assert that sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) may be present to contribute to the presence of symptoms such as confusion and forgetfulness. SCT relates to being sluggish, that indicated sluggish/slow to respond, and operating in a fog-like state. The relationship between SCT and ADHD, according to Skirbekk et al, is a subtype of attention. Further, they assert that DSM-IV-TR (2000) eliminated this "daydream and sluggish" demeanor from its criteria, because of its negative connotations. However, other researchers argue that these symptoms are significantly important to a clinical diagnosis, because they describe distinct factors of ADHD (Hartman as cited in Skirbedd et al, 2011, p. 513).

    In addition, and Based on DSM-IV-TR criteria, no specific physical features are ...

    Solution Summary

    This solution discusses a specific case study focused on ADHD