1. What are the signs and symptoms of a person who has been diagnosed with Dependent Personality Disorder?
Dependent personality disorder is recognized by its pervasive pattern of dependency and submissive behavior (Sperry, 1999). The person presents with various behavioral signs and symptoms. One way to better understand these signs and symptoms is to refer to the diagnostic criterion used in the diagnosis of the disorder.
For example, the DSM-IV describes the Dependent Personality Disorder as:
"A pervasive and excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior and fears of separation, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following criteria:
(1) has difficulty making everyday decisions without an excessive amount of advice and reasurrance from others
(2) needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his or her life
(3) has difficulty expressing disagreement with others because of fear of loss of support or approval. (Note: do not include realistic fears of retribution.)
(4) has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his or her own (because of a lack of self-confidence in judgment or abilities rather than to a lack of motivation or energy)
(5) goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others, to the point of volunteering to do things that are unpleasant
(6) feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone, because of exaggerated fears of being unable to care for himself or herself
This solution explains the signs and symptoms of a person who has been diagnosed with Dependent Personality Disorder, according to DSM-IV criterion and Cognitive Behavior Therapy.