I am seeking help with explaining the gender-specific policy and programs for impact on lowering the rate of recidivism of female offenders. Evaluate procedural or moral justice. In addition to, justifying which type of programs and policy is most useful based on psychological theories. this is research and preparation for completing my dissertation in forensic psychology© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 10, 2019, 8:18 am ad1c9bdddf
According to a 2008 report by Community Education Centers (CEC), "The number of women under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional Authorities have increased dramatically in the past several decades. From 1980 to 1998, the population of females under correctional supervision increased over 500%...This increase in female offenders and inmates is being accompanied by a correspondingly large increase in the number of females being released into the community from incarceration...recidivism rates among females released into the community from incarceration are not encouraging....within 3 years of being released, 57.6% of females were re-arrested, 39.9% were reconvicted, and 17.3% were re-sentenced to prison for a new offense." It is, according to CEC much lower in comparison to recidivism among male offenders. The issue however is that more than half are re-arrested with nearly 40% reconvicted which begs the question - how can these rates of recidivism be stopped? If these female offenders are mothers, for example, it can only mean that their recidivism and re-incarceration are having long-term effects on their families, especially their children, affecting life chances and outcomes in a chain of cause and effect that can make it extremely difficult for the women, and those around them to get out of and have some hope for a positive change.
Why do we turn to crime? Specifically, why do women turn to crime? Those who do turn to chime for a number of reasons. Some are born into a life wherein deviance and crime are normative (i.e. they grew up in abusive homes, their parents were deviants too, they lived in environments that encouraged criminality, etc.) but this is not always the case. If I were to offer 4 of the most common theories behind criminality, I suggest the following psychological theories:
1. Presence of Conduct Disorder - conduct disorder is (Boundless, 2016) "a psychological disorder diagnosed in childhood that presents itself through a repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others of major age-appropriate norms are violated." The presence of conduct disorder is often the precursor to antisocial personality disorder which indicates that aggressive behavior is the normative form of behavior that develops in the person and as such, normal controls are not enough to stem predilection towards deviance and criminality.
2. Behavioural Theory - behavior, according to this theory, is learned through interaction and socialization. For behaviourists, people are not born with a violent disposition. It is ...
The solution provides information, assistance and advise in tackling the task (see above) on the topic of female recidivism and program assessment for recidivism. Resources are listed for further exploration of the topic.