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Matching Educational Theorists with Classroom Techniques

Please see attachments - need lots of help with ideas!

1) Choose 3 theorist which best match observations made in the class room.

2) Note the relevant key ideas for each theorist in the "practical pedagogy" column.

3) Describe classroom tasks which "fit" the key ideas chosen.

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I am not sure whether you will be doing an actual field study by observing in a real classroom. I cannot really tell from your attachment. As you have suggested that you need many ideas, I have provided you with the main ideas in three different schools of thoughts (Behaviorism-Thorndike, Skinner and Bandura, Constructivism--Piaget, and Socio-constructivism--Vygotsky)in addtion to three articles.

Thorndike, Skinner and Bandura (Modern Behaviorism):

1. The assumption of this "traditional" approach to learning has been that as long as learners are provided with knowledge, they will be able to use it. Education based on that assumption is thus primarily concerned with transferring substance to the learner, and little importance is placed on the role of the learning activity. From a constructivist view, on the other hand, learning is the process of constructing knowledge - not merely obtaining it - in social environments (Brooks & Brooks, 1993).

2. Knowledge is acquired through of imitation or repetition (Kroll & LaBoskey, 1996).

3. The teacher is considered a dispenser of knowledge, in contrast to Piagian who see the teacher as a guide, facilitator, and co-explorer who encourages learners to question, challenge, and formulate their own ideas, opinions, and conclusions.

4. The pedagogy and teaching strategies focus on behavior control and task completion.

5. In this tradition, the teacher is presumed to know the "correct" answers and teachers through lectures and rote memory (this may be true for some subjects, like math). The learner is passive and, through exams, the child is expected to feed back the information given to them by the teacher or the "expert" of the subject material. This is in direct contrast to Piagetian tradition where single interpretations are de-emphasized as each child develops naturally and in her or his own unique way. However, Piaget believes that we all go through the basic stages of cognitive development as we embrace the objects and world around us, we learn.

6. It is considered the default mode in education--an empiricist/reductionist approach to teaching and learning. Why? Because the teacher fills students with deposits of information considered by the teacher to be true knowledge, and the students store these deposits, intact, until needed. Cannella & Reiff (1994) label these traditional models didactic, memory-oriented transmission models.

7. In the classroom you would be looking lecture type presentations (law and effect stimulus -response idea) with little or no class participation, taking notes on subject presented by the teacher, task completions, exams and quiz's with right and wrong answers, and the likes. Also, behavior by the students is either "right" or "wrong"--rules are not to be broken without consequences. Unlike the Montessori classroom, where the students have fewer rules, like having to remain seated, etc.

8. Thorndike--Law of effect (reinforcement) through stimulus-response. If a teacher gives information, the student will respond by learning; Skinner--operant conditioning--added reinforcement (reward and punishment contingency) to Thorndike's theory. A student is more likely to learn if you reward the child for engaging in behaviors that promote learning or ignore the child when he is not engaging in behavior that promotes learning; Bandura: Learning through modeling (vicarious reinforcement) Stimulus-Organization-Response idea. The child receives the information (stimulus) and watches others model (peers or teacher) and then the student responds. (i.e., role modeling, teacher demonstrations, such as showing step by step procedures to make a seed grow). The child learns through watching and then (trial and error) applying.

9. Teaching:
(a) Impart information--expert to novice
(b) Teacher controls the content
(c) Isolated bits of information
(d) Never let's the student asks questions--interferes with the flow of the lesson.
(e) "Sit up and shut up"
(f) Bandura (teacher as model)
(g) Rules mediate input of information
(h) Teaching strategies focus on behavior control and task completion
(i) The teacher is presumed to know the "correct" answers and teachers through lectures and rote memory (this may be true for some subjects, like math). The learner is passive and, through exams, the child is expected to feed back the information given to them by the teacher or the "expert" of the subject material. This is in direct contrast to Piagetian tradition where single interpretations are de-emphasized as each child develops naturally and in her or his own unique way. However, Piaget believes that we all go through the basic stages of cognitive development as we embrace the objects and world around us, we learn.

(j) It is considered the default mode in education--an empiricist/reductionist approach to teaching and learning. Why? Because the teacher fills students with deposits of information considered by the teacher to be true knowledge, and the ...

Solution Summary

Highlights aspects of several educational theorists to help match observations made in the class room with theory. Supplemented with three articles on Piaget and Vygotsky.

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