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Experimental Treatment Model and Results

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A behavior therapist seeks to reduce the frequency of hitting behavior exhibited by a 6-year-old child in a classroom for emotionally disturbed children. The child frequently strikes other children and even the teacher. The therapist trains one of the teacher's aides to reward the child with small candy reinforcers when the child has not struck anyone for a period of 5 minutes. The experiment is conducted during two 1-hour sessions each weekday for a period of 4 weeks. An ABAB design is used, each week comprising a different stage. The results of this behavioral intervention are shown on the attachment page. Answer two question below:

1. Does visual inspection of the data obtained in this hypothetical study provide evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment? Why or why not?

2. Provide two suggestions for improving the quality of the evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment in this situation.

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1. With an ABAB design, you start by measuring a baseline rate of the behavior (A), and then you implement the treatment to see if the rate of behavior changes with the treatment (B). However, to check if the behavior rate would have changed anyways (due to some other uninteresting variable like the passage of time), you remove the treatment after a while (A). Since it's often unethical to remove the treatment permanently if it might work to change a problem behavior (as we see in this case), you then re-implement the treatment to see if it influences behavior (B).

Let's break the behavior down into these four components. If the treatment works to decrease hitting, we should see lower rates of hitting during the B sessions than during the A sessions. The A sessions are on ...

Solution Summary

The solution presents an experimental treatment model and a discussion of the results. The text contains 551 words.

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Answer the following questions for the attached research article (Dormire, S.L. & Reame, N.K. 2003. Menopausal hot flash frequency changes in response to experimental manipulation of blood glucose. Nursing Research 52(5): 338-343.):

1. Problem
What is the problem the study was conducted to resolve?
Why is the problem an important one for nursing to study?

2. Study Purpose
What is the purpose of the study?

3. Research Question(s)
What is the main research question?

4. Hypothesis/hypotheses
What is the study hypothesis?

5. Study Variables
What are the independent and dependent study variables?

6. Conceptual Model/Theoretical Framework
In what way(s) was a conceptual model or theoretical framework used to guide this study?

7. Review of Related Literature
In what way(s) does the literature review support the need for this study?

8. Study Design
What study design is used?
In what way(s) is the design used an appropriate one?
Name and describe at least two threats to the internal validity of the study design.
Name and describe at least two threats to the external validity of the study design.

9. Sample and Setting
In what way(s) is the sample large enough?
In what way(s) is the sample representative of the population?
In what way(s) is the setting in which data were collected an appropriate one for this study?

10. Identification and Control of Extraneous Variables
What are the extraneous variables in this study?
In what way(s) were appropriate measures used to control for the influence of the extraneous variables?

11. Study Instruments/Tools
In what way(s) is the support provided for the validity of the study instruments adequate for their use in this study?
In what way(s) is the support provided for the reliability of the study instruments adequate for their use in this study?
In what way(s) were the instruments used appropriate for this study?

12. Data Collection Methods
In what way(s) is the data collection procedures appropriate for this study?
In what way were appropriate steps taken to protect the rights of the subjects?

13. Data Analysis Procedures
In what way(s) are the data analysis procedures appropriate for the data collected?
In what way(s) are the data analysis procedures appropriate for answering the research question(s) and/or testing the study hypothesis (hypotheses)?

14. Strengths/Limitations
What are two major strengths of the scientific merit of this study?
What are two major limitations of the scientific merit of this study?

See attached files for full problem description.

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