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    Could you do an "objective response" conversation and without being too personal and briefly share your thoughts or comments on this person's discussion as your critique this person's discussion. In your responses, offer your support or explain why you do not agree with this person's opinions by citing the Code of Ethics or other professional documents as support.

    For this discussion, this person read the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, and then they will choose at least two standards to explore. This person will choose one from Section 10 - Therapy, and one from another section. Especially focusing on these sections:
    • 2 - Competence.
    • 3 - Human Relations.
    • 4 - Privacy and Confidentiality.
    • 5 - Advertising and Other Public Statements.
    • 6 - Record Keeping and Fees.
    For the two standards that this person will choose, this person will address the following:
    • Name the section of the Code you are going to discuss.
    • What are the basic values expressed in the standard you chose? For example, in 10.05 Sexual Intimacies With Current Therapy Clients/Patients, the Code states, "Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with current therapy clients/patients." One principle illustrated by this standard is Principle A, Beneficence and Nonmaleficence.
    • Explain how breaking the standard you chose might endanger the value it encompasses. For example, how would a sexual relationship cause harm to a client?
    • Apply the standard to a real-life situation (or a scenario you create) to illustrate how it would apply to a psychologist in practice.
    • Are there limits to the standard? For example, using 10.05 from above, would it be ethical to have sexual intimacy with non-current clients? Explain your reasoning, and back up your opinion by showing support from other sections of the Code, whenever possible.
    • Are there modifications or changes you might suggest to this particular item? Is there a need to keep this part of the Code? Explain your thinking.
    This person will be sure to discuss one standard from Section 10 and one from another section, following the outline above for both standards you discuss.

    Here is their discussion:

    The Ethics Code is intended to provide guidance for psychologists and standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to adopt them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. Whether a psychologist has violated the Ethics Code standards does not by itself determine whether the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, whether a contract is enforceable, or whether other legal consequences occur.

    It is important for you as a skilled helper to be aware of these guidelines in order to provide the best possible services to clients, and to avoid harming those with whom you work. The Code provides ethical principles for professional behavior as well as standards by which psychologists should be conducting their relationships and their work. It is not a legal document, but rather a set of guidelines

    2.03 Maintaining Competence

    Psychologists undertake ongoing efforts to develop and maintain their competence

    10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or Families

    (a) When psychologists agree to provide services to several persons who have a relationship (such as spouses, significant others, or parents and children), they take reasonable steps to clarify at the outset (1) which of the individuals are clients/patients and (2) the relationship the psychologist will have with each person. This clarification includes the psychologist's role and the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained.

    (b) If it becomes apparent that psychologists may be called on to perform potentially conflicting roles (such as family therapist and then witness for one party in divorce proceedings), psychologists take reasonable steps to clarify and modify, or withdraw from, roles appropriately(American Psychological Association. (2010).

    This Ethics Code applies only to psychologists' activities that are part of their scientific, educational or professional roles as psychologists. Areas covered include but are not limited to the clinical, counseling and school practice of psychology; research; teaching; supervision of trainees; public service; policy development; social intervention; development of assessment instruments; conducting assessments; educational counseling; organizational consulting; forensic activities; program design and evaluation; and administration. This Ethics Code applies to these activities across a variety of contexts, such as in person, postal, telephone, internet and other electronic transmissions. These activities shall be distinguished from the purely private conduct of psychologists, which is not within the purview of the Ethics Code.

    Principle A: Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

    Psychologists strive to benefit those with whom they work and take care to do no harm. In their professional actions, psychologists seek to safeguard the welfare and rights of those with whom they interact professionally and other affected persons and the welfare of animal subjects of research. When conflicts occur among psychologists' obligations or concerns, they attempt to resolve these conflicts in a responsible fashion that avoids or minimizes harm. Because psychologists' scientific and professional judgments and actions may affect the lives of others, they are alert to and guard against personal, financial, social, organizational or political factors that might lead to misuse of their influence. Psychologists strive to be aware of the possible effect of their own physical and mental health on their ability to help those with whom they work.

    Principle B: Fidelity and Responsibility

    Psychologists establish relationships of trust with those with whom they work. They are aware of their professional and scientific responsibilities to society and to the specific communities in which they work. Psychologists uphold professional standards of conduct, clarify their professional roles and obligations, accept appropriate responsibility for their behavior and seek to manage conflicts of interest that could lead to exploitation or harm. Psychologists consult with, refer to, or cooperate with other professionals and institutions to the extent needed to serve the best interests of those with whom they work. They are concerned about the ethical compliance of their colleagues' scientific and professional conduct. Psychologists strive to contribute a portion of their professional time for little or no compensation or personal advantage.

    Principle C: Integrity

    Psychologists seek to promote accuracy, honesty and truthfulness in the science, teaching and practice of psychology. In these activities psychologists do not steal, cheat or engage in fraud, subterfuge or intentional misrepresentation of fact. Psychologists strive to keep their promises and to avoid unwise or unclear commitments. In situations in which deception may be ethically justifiable to maximize benefits and minimize harm, psychologists have a serious obligation to consider the need for, the possible consequences of, and their responsibility to correct any resulting mistrust or other harmful effects that arise from the use of such techniques.

    Principle D: Justice

    Psychologists recognize that fairness and justice entitle all persons to access to and benefit from the contributions of psychology and to equal quality in the processes, procedures and services being conducted by psychologists. Psychologists exercise reasonable judgment and take precautions to ensure that their potential biases, the boundaries of their competence and the limitations of their expertise do not lead to or condone unjust practices.

    Principle E: Respect for People's Rights and Dignity

    Psychologists respect the dignity and worth of all people, and the rights of individuals to privacy, confidentiality, and self-determination. Psychologists are aware that special safeguards may be necessary to protect the rights and welfare of persons or communities whose vulnerabilities impair autonomous decision making. Psychologists are aware of and respect cultural, individual and role differences, including those based on age, gender, gender identity, race, ethnicity, culture, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, disability, language and socioeconomic status and consider these factors when working with members of such groups. Psychologists try to eliminate the effect on their work of biases based on those factors, and they do not knowingly participate in or condone activities of others based upon such prejudices (American Psychological Association. (2010).

    An example would be an adult client that is disabled that is brought to counseling by his parents. The client living in the home with his parents is wanting to move . The client decides to hire a lawyer and the parents want to know what is being discussed in the private session with the disabled client. This would be a conflict if the counselor is asked to testify in court. (American Psychological Association. (2010).

    Reference:

    American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved from http://apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:55 pm ad1c9bdddf
    https://brainmass.com/psychology//apa-code-ethics-scenario-619014

    SOLUTION This solution is FREE courtesy of BrainMass!

    See the attachments.

    The solution below should get you started. In this particular task, you are asking for help in putting together a discussion fomenting opinions and giving comments on positions presented. In this solution, I have assumed that the discussion will be on 2 of the principles. Instead, one was chosen side by side with the general principles of ethical practice. I decided to follow base this solution following the instructions for the task:

    "This person will choose one from Section 10 - Therapy, and one from another section. Especially focusing on these sections:
    • 2 - Competence.
    • 3 - Human Relations.
    • 4 - Privacy and Confidentiality.
    • 5 - Advertising and Other Public Statements.
    • 6 - Record Keeping and Fees."
    For the two standards that this person will choose, this person will address the following:
    • Name the section of the Code you are going to discuss.
    • What are the basic values expressed in the standard you chose? For example, in 10.05 Sexual Intimacies with Current Therapy Clients/Patients, the Code states, "Psychologists do not engage in sexual intimacies with current therapy clients/patients." One principle illustrated by this standard is Principle A, Beneficence and Non-maleficence.
    • Explain how breaking the standard you chose might endanger the value it encompasses. For example, how would a sexual relationship cause harm to a client?
    • Apply the standard to a real-life situation (or a scenario you create) to illustrate how it would apply to a psychologist in practice.
    • Are there limits to the standard? For example, using 10.05 from above, would it be ethical to have sexual intimacy with non-current clients? Explain your reasoning, and back up your opinion by showing support from other sections of the Code, whenever possible.
    • Are there modifications or changes you might suggest to this particular item? Is there a need to keep this part of the Code? Explain your thinking.
    This person will be sure to discuss one standard from Section 10 and one from another section, following the outline above for both standards you discuss."

    As such, I've had to edit through the material to determine the commentary for 1 section and 2 items from the code as there are lots of materials involved. The following narrative follows on from that. There is no discussion on the topic per se rather than a reiteration of the material derived from APA itself and the reaction reflects that.

    Discussion:

    "The Ethics Code is intended to provide guidance for psychologists and standards of professional conduct that can be applied by the APA and by other bodies that choose to adopt them. The Ethics Code is not intended to be a basis of civil liability. Whether a psychologist has violated the Ethics Code standards does not by itself determine whether the psychologist is legally liable in a court action, whether a contract is enforceable, or whether other legal consequences occur. It is important for you as a skilled helper to be aware of these guidelines in order to provide the best possible services to clients, and to avoid harming those with whom you work. The Code provides ethical principles for professional behavior as well as standards by which psychologists should be conducting their relationships and their work. It is not a legal document, but rather a set of guidelines.

    2.03 Maintaining Competence
    Psychologists undertake ongoing efforts to develop and maintain their competence.

    10.02 Therapy Involving Couples or Families
    (a) When psychologists agree to provide services to several persons who have a relationship (such as spouses, significant others, or parents and children), they take reasonable steps to clarify at the outset (1) which of the individuals are clients/patients and (2) the relationship the psychologist will have with each person. This clarification includes the psychologist's role and the probable uses of the services provided or the information obtained.
    (b) If it becomes apparent that psychologists may be called on to perform potentially conflicting roles (such as family therapist and then witness for one party in divorce proceedings), psychologists take reasonable steps to clarify and modify, or withdraw from, roles appropriately (American Psychological Association. (2010)."

    Reaction:

    The narrative above discusses that the Ethics code of the APA are guidelines and not legal basis for civil liability. While it is true that it is not the basis for civil liability, the standards set by the APA protects all stakeholders and all members of the APA are thus expected to adhere by its standards. Thus, APA can sanction its members for code violations and thus inform other professional organizations, both state and federal that are non-APA members but are in violation of the code. Additionally, according to Wilmshurst (2008), ethics violations can "ultimately result in violations of: malpractice suits (e.eg. those involving negligence or sexual psychologist-client relation) and violations of state licensing laws which might result in loss of license to practice." I feel that while it is essential to declare that APA ethics code is not basis for civil liability, it is also essential to highlight how it impacts malpractice suits and state licensing violations and this is not noted in the discussion.

    The discussion goes on to exemplify to items from 2 different sections of the code - Section 2.03 'maintaining competence' and Section 10.02 on Therapy involving couples, items (a) and (b). I submit that these are important sections to note, reminding the practitioner to maintain competence via training and constant learning of new knowledge in the field for (2.03) while (10.02) reminds practitioners the importance of clarifying roles and identifying potential areas of conflict in relation to this in one's role providing therapy for families and couples. Beyond quoting the items directly from APA (2010) however, discussion on its impact including basic values, relating them to real-life situations, discussions of limitations and possible modifications are not included outside of listing the General Principles listed in the APA ethics code. All of the 5 Principles - Beneficence and nonmaleficence, Fidelity and Responsibility, Integrity, Justice and Respect for People's Rights and Dignity - are directly quoted from the APA source but not cited to indicate direct sourcing of material.

    For example, if one were to follow the instructions given, using the 2.03, based on the situational scenario provided in the discussion, it is possible to for example to present the following discussion:

    Scenario - "An example would be an adult client that is disabled that is brought to counseling by his parents. The client living in the home with his parents wants to move. The client decides to hire a lawyer and the parents want to know what is being discussed in the private session with the disabled client. This would be a conflict if the counselor is asked to testify in court."

    Sample Reaction - Section 2.03 of the APA code advises the importance of maintaining competence. In this case, it is important for the practitioner, who is giving the counselling therapy to ensure that he or she is trained, experienced and skilled in providing counselling to disabled individuals. The principle of Beneficence and non-maleficence play a part here as in ensuring that he or she is skilled and able to deal with the issue at hand, he or she as practitioner is making sure that the client gains and is provided the appropriate help while ensuring that harm is avoided. It is also the responsibility of the practitioner to ensure that he or she is trained and is expert on the task of counselling a disabled individual. Meanwhile section 10.02 which directly governs the scenario is about ensuring that there is no conflict in the roles in family therapy. While it is their son that is getting counselling, the parents are part of the equation too as they are the ones that hired the therapist for their son. If we look at the principle of justice, while the clients are the parents since they are the ones paying, the subject of therapy who is there son must be provided the same provisions of protection of professionalism including confidentiality. Thus, the boundary of the relationship of the therapist to the parents and to their son must be made clear. There has to be no biases that favour either side. Integrity-wise it is important to avoid things that are unclear so as to avoid harm, deception and misrepresentation. This has to be done from the beginning. Thus if the son has hired a lawyer to represent him, then the son has the right to fight for the confidentiality of his private session unless the court has enforced this to be made available to his parents since he is an adult and can thus make such decisions for himself. Barriers of both can include language and cultural differences however I believe that the code is comprehensive in itself and there is no immediate need for modification.

    Thus, the discussion provided in the narrative is lacking thus as showcased in the exemplification I have provided above.

    Word Count:1,095
    Resources:

    1. APA (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. URL: http://apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
    2. Wilmshurst, L. (2008). Abnormal Child Psychology: A Developmental Perspective. Taylor and Francis.

    This content was COPIED from BrainMass.com - View the original, and get the already-completed solution here!

    © BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com December 24, 2021, 11:55 pm ad1c9bdddf>
    https://brainmass.com/psychology//apa-code-ethics-scenario-619014

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