What are the causes of the civil war in Sudan? What steps can the international community take to resolve this conflict? Why do you think that interstate war is on the decline but civil wars and ethnic wars within a society are on the rise?
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OTA 105878/Xenia Jones
Civil War in Sudan
The Civil War in Sudan is one of the longest conflicts in modern human history. Sudan is a country in North Africa, located just south of Egypt. Because of cultural make-up and geographic location, it is at times considered part of the Middle Eastern sphere. As such it maintains membership with the Arab League. The Civil War in Sudan is divided into 2 main conflicts - the first civil war which ranged from 1955-1972 and the second civil war which ranged from 1983-2005 whose effects is still felt to this day. The first civil war, also known as the Anyanya Rebellion, its root was a Northern and Southern schism. The South was demanding more regional autonomy as well as equal representation in government. This conflict resulted to over 500,000 deaths. Initially, the north, who had control of government fought a guerilla war with the south, the guerillas then formed themselves into the Anyanya separatist rebel group whose core consisted of rebel officers and students. Their movement spread across key southern provinces but because of ethnic differences, it was too weak to truly challenge the ruling government. The ruling government however had its own issues due to factionalism and political instability. As such, the duly elected government was overrun by a military coup which was then followed by opposing voices - Islamists, Marxists and anti-Marxists. By 1971, former Army Lt. Joseph Lagu unified the separatist movement under a command structure becoming Southern Sudan Liberation Movement (SSLM) thus allowing it to become the 'official' voice ...
The solution provides a comprhensive explanation of the causes of the Civil War in Sudan.The 1st and 2nd Civil Wars are also explained to give perspective to the political and ethnic divides.References are listed for further exploration of the topic. A word version is also attached.