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Pascal's Law

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1). Here is a demonstration Pascal used to show the importance of a fluid's pressure on the fluid's depth.

(See attachment)

An oak barrel with a lid of area 0.20 m^2 is filled with water. A long, thin tube of cross sectional area 5.00 10^-5 m^2 is inserted into a hole at the center of the lid, and water is poured into the tube. When the water reaches 15 m high, the barrel bursts.

(a) What was the weight of the water in the tube?

(b) What was the pressure of the water on the lid of the barrel?

(c) What was the net force on the lid due to the water pressure?

2). A hypodermic syringe has a plunger of area 2.3 cm^2 and a 4.50 x 10^-3 cm^2 needle.

(a) If a 1.4 N force is applied to the plunger, what is the gauge pressure in the syringe's chamber?

(b) If a small obstruction is at the end of the needle, what force does the fluid exert on it?

(c) If the blood pressure in a vein is 50 mm Hg, what force must be applied on the plunger so that fluid can be injected into the vein?

3). A rectangular boat, as illustrated in Fig. 9.32 (see attachment), is overloaded such that the water level is just 1.7 cm below the top of the boat. What is the combined mass of the people and the boat?

4). A block of iron quickly sinks in water, but ships constructed of iron float. A solid cube of iron 8.0 m on each side is made into sheets. To make these sheets into a hollow cube that will not sink, what should be the minimum length of the sides of the sheets?

5). A steel beam 11 m long is installed in a structure at 15°C. What are the beam's changes in length at the temperature extremes of -20°C to 55°C?

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The demonstration Pascal used to show the importance of a fluid's pressure on the fluid's depth is determined.

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Describe how Pascal, Descartes, or Galileo were agents of change

Management textbooks often refer to people who make a difference within organizations as change agents. What is less often discussed, aside from what they did and the positive results, is what made them do it. One answer to this question was penned by the author and playwright, George Bernard Shaw, when he told us, "The reasonable man adapts himself to the world; the unreasonable man persists in trying to adapt the world to himself. Therefore, all progress [change] depends on the unreasonable man" (Quotation Details, 2005).

Based on Shaw's notions, select between Pascal, Descartes, or Galileo , and describe whom you would consider a change agent. Please discuss why you selected that person, what the person did, and the change that was caused by the person's actions.

Remember that change is not always synonymous with something positive or good. What is seen as a supposedly well-intended action by one person, in reality, quite often had very negative and long lasting consequences for the person or others.

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