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Sampling methods and level of measurements

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1) American On Line ran a poll of its Internet subscribers and asked this question - Should the World Trade Center towers be rebuild?" among the 1,304.240 response : 768, 731 said Yes and 286, 756 answered NO and 248,753 said that they were "undecided". Being that this sample is extremely large can the responses be considered to be representative of the population of the United States?

2) Visa wants to conduct a survey of credit card usage among the full-time students who attend college. What is a good procedure for obtaining a sample of each type: random, systemic, convenience stratified, cluster.

3) a) the weights of people in a sample of elevator passengers
b) a movie critic's ratings of "must see; recommended; not recommend; don't even think about going"
c) a movie critic's classification of "drama, comedy, adventure"
d) Bob, who is different in many ways measures time in days, with 0 corresponding to his birth date. The day before his birth is -1 , the day after his birth is +1 and so on . Bob has converted the dates of major historical events to his numbering system. What is the level of measurement of these numbers.

IDENTIFY WHICH OF THE ABOVE IS Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio level of management.

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There are a number of limitations associated with study. The foremost of which is the lack representativeness of the sample. The sample selected is not random. Only subscribes of American Online can participate in this study. Randomness is the fundamental principle of any statistical study.

The Internet population has a slight bias towards younger, more computer literate users. The study limited the potential pool of respondents to those already involved in online activities and some members of the target population may have not participated because of their discomfort with on line interactions.

Thus in the above study sampling error is not controlled. It can be noted that the sampling error tend to increase with increasing sample size. Thus sample collected is not a representative of the population of the United States.


1. Hamilton, J. C. (1999). The ethics of conducting social science research on the Internet. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (15), B6-7.
2. Stanton, J. M. (1998). An empirical assessment of data collection using the Internet. Personnel Psychology, 51 (3), 709-725.

2) Visa wants to conduct a survey of credit card usage among the full-time students who attend college. What is a good procedure for obtaining a sample of each type: random, systematic, convenience stratified, cluster?

Random sampling
A Simple ransom sampling procedure that assures that each element in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Let us assume you there are N students, and you wanted to select n of them for further study. You might put all their Names / id numbers / Visa Card Number in a drum and then pull n names out. This means that every student has a n / N chance of being selected using this method. You can also use some statistical package like SPSS to generate random numbers of id of students

Stratified sampling

Using stratified sampling, the population is divided into ...

Solution Summary

The solution gives the details random sampling, systematic sampling, convenience sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling and other sampling methods. Definition and examples of nominal, ordinal, interval and ratio level of measurement are also given.

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Directed Analysis

Directed Methods Analysis of Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2012). Change agents, networks and institutions: A contingency theory of organizational change. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 381-398.

Read the assigned article (above) and answer the following questions. Although you certainly may use additional text-based sources to assist you, the information that you need to be able to answer these questions can be obtained from your course readings (Critical Thinking, 2nd edition, by Alec Fisher) and your own critical thinking skills.

Your answers must be in your own words. "Cutting and pasting" material from the article will be considered non-responsive and result in no credit for that answer. Please number each response.

In your answer, if you refer to any text from the assigned article directly, please be sure to reference it appropriately.

1. Was this article published in a recognized scholarly journal? And what is your evidence for or against?

2. What is the purpose of the article? Do the authors achieve their purpose? Provide evidence for your judgment.

3. Is there a gap in the field of literature that is addressed by this study? If so, what is that gap? How does this study address the gap?

4. Is the research method (study design) appropriate for answering the authors' research question? Provide evidence for your judgment.

5. In your own words, why do the authors conduct the study using both quantitative and qualitative methods? Provide an example of one qualitative data collection method and one quantitative data collection method the authors used in the study. Do you think the use of both methods supported the findings of the study? Why or why not?

6. In what way do the quantitative measures used in this study answer the proposed research question?

7. What is the population of interest in the combined studies? Do you think the sample used is a good representation of that population? Why or why not?

8. Was the selection of cases based on external, objective and validated criteria? Why?

9. Are objective and validated measurement methods used to measure the outcome in this study? If not, was the outcome assessed by someone who was unaware of the group assignment (i.e. was the assessor blinded)?

10. Could there be confounding factors in the findings of this study that haven't been accounted for by the authors? If so, what are those factors?

11. Table 2 presents the correlation matrix for the variables used to assess change agents in this study.

(a) List all of the statistically significant correlations.
(b) Choose one of the statistically significant outcomes and describe in your own words what this outcome means in relation to the study.

12. Tables 3 and 4 present five multiple regression models intended to test how well certain variables predict degree of change divergence (Table 3) and degree of change adoption (Table 4).

(a) What is the difference between Model 3, Model 4, and Model 5?
(b) Why is it necessary to run three models?
(c) What outcome does Model 4 predict? How do you know this?

13. Give two specific examples of how the researchers used qualitative data to illustrate the quantitative data. How does the authors' use of these examples support the research findings? [3 points]

14. In this study, the researchers administered a telephone survey to measure the level of change adoption.

a. At what level of measurement were the scale items measured?
b. What would a "4" on the item "How far did you progress toward completing the change project" mean?
c. What would a "4" on the item "In my view, the change was not adopted in the organization" mean?
d. Give one example of how the researchers validated their measurements of change adoption.

15. Having slowly and carefully read the Method and Results section of this article, thoughtfully and cogently explain the role of the data that the authors collected and analyzed in helping them advance an argument about change agents and their influence on initiation and adoption of change in organizations.

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