1. How many calories are needed to raise 500 grams of water from 25 degrees Celsius to 40 degrees Celsius?
2. Define the following terms:
a. Internal energy
b. Specific heat
3. Suppose a 1 meter long bar expands 0.5 centimeters when heated. By how much will a 100 meter long bar of the same material expand when similarly heated?
4. State how much energy is transferred in each of the following cases:
a. 2 grams of steam at 100 degrees Celsius condenses to water at 100 degrees Celsius.
b. 2 grams of boiling water at 100 degrees Celsius cools to ice water at 0 degrees Celsius.
c. 2 grams of ice water at 0 degrees Celsius freezes to ice at 0 degrees Celsius.
d. 2 grams of steam at 100 degrees Celsius turns to ice at 0 degrees Celsius.
5. State and explain the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
6. Calculate the change in internal energy for each of the following systems:
a. 100 joules of energy is added to a system that does 40 joules of external work.
b. 75 joules of energy is removed from a system that has 50 joules of work done on it.
c. 150 joules of energy is added to a system that has 75 joules of work done on it.
7. Explain why a body of water freezes from the top down rather than from the bottom up.
This solution assists with the example physics problems.