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Rocket Science: Heat Transfer Issues

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In rocket science, heat transfer issues must be addressed. Use the attached pictures to become familiar with the basic design of a rocket. The heat from the inside of the throat wall travels to the outside of the throat wall by conduction.

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An experimental rocket's combustion thrust chamber has an outside (cool) wall temperature of 135° C at the nozzle throat, with a 4500° C chamber temperature. The heat transfer rate through the throat wall is measured to be 2 x 107 W/m2. The liquid-cooled throat wall is made of 0.3 cm thick stainless steel with k = 26 W/m°C. Assume the coolant's surface area is equal to the hot gas's surface area. Calculate the inner or hot wall's temperature at the throat using the given information.

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Solution Summary

This is a rocket science problem that gives a basic design scenario of a rocket and asks you to calculate how the heat from the inside of the throat wall travels to the outside of the throat wall. The solution contains the step by step process to work through this problem. The applicable equations are stated and the calculation is done for the student to follow along.

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Identify and implement the role of fluency in reading and comprehension.

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The primary purpose of reading is to gain meaning from connected text. Important for this purpose is that recognition of text becomes a fluent process. Fluency is considered to be composed of three components: accuracy, automaticity, and prosody (Kuhn & Stahl, 2003; National Reading Panel, 2000). Accuracy entails the correct identification of a word. Automaticity is the immediate recognition of words that bypass the decoding process. Finally, prosody is the ability of an individual to read while providing the appropriate expression
implied by the text (e.g., intonation, stress, and timing). Although accurate identification of words is necessary for the comprehension of connected text, results reported from the National Assessment of Education Progress, which focused on reading performance
during the fourth grade, showed that accuracy alone is not related to reading comprehension in a strong manner (Pinnell et al., 1995). Further, this same research identified a small number of children who demonstrated average levels of comprehension with relatively low levels of accuracy. Although these results failed to establish a strong relationship between accuracy and reading comprehension, without accurate word identification, comprehension of
connected text would not be possible. It appears, therefore, that accurate identification of words is necessary but not sufficient to foster comprehension of written text.

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