How would Skinner answer the issue of motivation and the rat's behavior? Would Skinner and Watson hold the same view? [250 plus word count.] (2) Provide an example of how Watson's theory can be applied to our daily life; provide a second example of how Tolman's theory can be applied. Which theory, in your estimation, can have the most impact in regards to special education classroom? And why? [300 plus word count. In text, citation required.
Two scholarly references should be included in addition to [9781133272021, An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (2009). Sixth Edition, B. R. Hergenhahn - © Cengage Learning. Write in 3rd person scholarly writing. No quotes please.] This is a personally developed question not an assignment or home work
Watson, Skinner and Tolman on Motivation
Skinner's view is a more complex form of conditioning than Watson's version. For Watson, rats in a maze are no different than employees on the shop floor or students in a classroom. There are only two variables: action and reward. The context of these variables concern the ability to structure an environment where the desired actions lead to a reward, while undesirable actions are punished. Skinner's approach was more nuanced (Lussier, 2009).
Watson differed from Skinner in only a few respects, but one of the most important was the scientific value of mental processes or deliberation. Watson rejected these completely, while Skinner maintained their significance. The difference between the two is that Skinner held that certain mental states were important in the process of conditioning. A certain level of thought and emotion were necessary for the conditioning to take hold. Watson saw an immediate and unreflective connection between action and reward. Everything was physical and hence, immediate. Thought or deliberation might suggest a mediate situation where conditioning, while still central, is filtered through a process in order for it to occur effectively (Cameron, 2006). The issue is that Skinner held to some concept of free will where a decision must be made to follow the promptings of reinforcement. Watson held that all of these reactions were just manifestations of immediate physical ...
Skinnerian applications for the issues of motivations are examined. The impacts in regards to special education classrooms are determined.