Determinism is the idea that events within a given paradigm are bound by causality by prior states. The philosophical view says human cognition (behavior, decision, and action) is determined by previous events. In philosophical arguments, the concept of determinism is contrasted with free will. Determinism assumes that every event has an antecedent cause in an infinite causal chain since the beginning of the universe. There is nothing uncaused or self-caused. Some of the determinist philosophers are Thomas Hobbes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz, David Hume, Arthur Schopenhauer, William James, Friedrich Nietzsche, Albert Einstein, ...
explain the historical development of determinism, existentialism an dualism. Explain who the main contributors were and the evolution of how each grew out of the original field of epistemology or metaphysics.