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Philosophy questions - argument fallacious

1.not our man. If Jones committed the crime, then he wouldn't pass a "lie-detector" (i.e. polygraph) test. But, as a matter of fact, he did pass the test.

a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!)

2. The following argument is valid but fallacious. If most animal species are changing over time, then the theory of evolution is likely to be correct. And it is likely to be correct because it has been discovered that most animal species are changing over time.

a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!)

3. Yes, I agree, advertising is often deliberately deceptive. But so what? Business is like poker: Both have their own rules, both are competitive, both involve profit and loss, and both require skill and strategy. Furthermore, in poker deception is expected and allowed, witness bluffing. And if business is like poker, and poker allows deception, then, clearly Watson, deceptive business advertising should be expected and allowed

a)Is the argument deductive or inductive? Why?

b)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!)

4. Are gorillas vegetarians? Many people think so. Yes, they eat mostly leaves, young stems and juicy fruits; but careful observation of gorillas in the wild has revealed their great delight when finding a snail to eat. If gorillas were vegetarians, they wouldn't relish snails. But they delightfully relish snails. Obviously, then, it is simple deduction, Watson: Gorillas are not vegetarians.

a) Is the argument valid or invalid? Why?

b) Is the argument deductive or inductive? Why?

c) What would make this argument reasonable? (Note: I'm not saying it is un-reasonable)

5. Is the volcano about to explode? Definitely, there is no doubt about it, It's simple deduction. If there is a sudden and high increase in sulfuric acid emIssions, then a volcano is about to explode. And this one is about to explode because there has been a sudden and high increase in sulfuric acid emissions.

a) What is the Standard Form of this argument.

b) Is the argument valid or invalid? Why?

c) In terms of necessary and sufficient conditions, why is this argument fallacious?

Solution Preview

1.not our man. If Jones committed the crime, then he wouldn't pass a "lie-detector" (i.e. polygraph) test. But, as a matter of fact, he did pass the test.

a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!)
What sorts of things can you say about a polygraph that would lead you to question it as “proof” of Jones’ innocence? Is the lie-detector a good authority for innocence? What fallacy covers this problem?

2. The following argument is valid but fallacious. If most animal species are changing over time, then the theory of evolution is likely to be correct. And it is likely to be correct because it has been discovered that most animal species are changing over time.

a)Why is the argument fallacious? (and it is!)
Doesn’t this argument seem to go in a circle?

3. Yes, I agree, advertising is often deliberately deceptive. But so what? Business is like poker: Both have their own rules, both are competitive, both involve profit and loss, and both require skill and strategy. Furthermore, in ...

Solution Summary

The solution discusses argument fallacious in the context of philosophy.

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