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Fallacy Problems Q&A

Please help with this assignment -
In very short paragraphs/ straight to the point, complete the following:

Identify and explain the fallacies of relevance in the following passage.
Nietzsche was personally more philosophical than his philosophy. His talk about power, harshness, and superb immorality was the hobby of a harmless young scholar and constitutional invalid.- George Santayana.

Identify and explain any fallacies of defective induction or of presumption in the following passage:
If you want a life full of sexual pleasures, don't graduate from college. A study to be published next month in American Demographics magazines shows that people with the most education have the least amount of sex- The Chronicle of Higher Education

Identify and explain the fallacies of ambiguity that appear in the following passage:
The basis of logic is the syllogism, consisting of a major and a minor premise and a
conclusion -- thus:
Major Premise: Sixty men can do a piece of work sixty times as quickly as one man.
Minor Premise: One man can dig a posthole in sixty seconds;
therefore --
Conclusion: Sixty men can dig a posthole in one second.
This may be called the syllogism arithmetical, in which, by combining logic and
mathematics, we obtain a double certainty and are twice blessed.

Identify and explain the fallacies of relevance of defective induction, or presumption, or ambiguity as they occur in the following passages. Explain why, in the case of some, it may be plausibly argued that what appears at first to be a fallacy is not when the argument is interpreted correctly.
Which is more useful, sun or the moon? The moon is more useful since it gives us light during the night, when it is dark, when it is dark, whereas the sun shines only in the daytime, when it is light anyway- George Gamow

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Dear Student,
Hello. The solution below should get you started but you have to take care that your final answers will be in your own words to ensure that your paper will be free of any ethical issues. If you have any questions, you can use the listed references or leave a message via the feedback section. As requested, the answers are concise and straight to the point. Good luck with your studies!

Sincerely,
OTA 105878/Xenia Jones
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Logical Fallacies

Q. Identify and explain the fallacies of relevance in the following passage.
Nietzsche was personally more philosophical than his philosophy. His talk about power, harshness, and superb immorality was the hobby of a harmless young scholar and constitutional invalid.- George Santayana.

A. A fallacy of relevance fails at providing enough evidence to support their conclusions. In the above passage, Santayana declares that Nietzsche was more 'philosophical' than his philosophy. His evidence - Nietzsche's hobby of talking about power, harshness & immorality. He declares that Nietzsche was a harmless scholar and constitutional invalid. How can this support the conclusion? It points out that Nietzsche likes to engage in discourse from which the conclusion is drawn that he was 'harmless' yet constitutionally invalid. The evidence supports a different conclusion entirely. What we have here then is ignoratio elenchi or an irrelevant conclusion.

Q. Identify ...

Solution Summary

The solution provides a guide in answering the listed logical fallacy problems. In a Q&A format, each problem is tackled, providing students ideas and guidance in tackling the tasks listed. A word version of the solution is attached. References are listed for further studies.

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