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Ring proofs

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1.
a. show that every subfield of complex numbers contains rational numbers
b. show that the prime field of real numbers is rational numbers
c. show that the prime field of complex numbers is rational numbers

2.
a. Let R be a domain. Prove that the polynomial f(x) is a unit in R[x] if and only if f(x) is a nonzero constant which is a unit in R.

b. Show that ([2]x + [1])^2 = [1] in (integers modulo 4)[x] Conclude that the statement in part (a) may be false for the commutative rings that are not domains. [ An element z element of R is called a nilpoint if z^m = 0 for some integer m greater than or equal to one. For any commutative ring R, it can be proved that a polynomial f(x) = a(sub 0) + a(sub 1)x +...+a(sub n)x^n element R[x] is a unit in R[x] if and only if a(sub 0) is a unit in R and a(sub i) is nilpoint for all I greater than or equal to 1.]