# Fundamental subspace theorem

Consider the matrix

a=(1 1 2

1 2 -1

3 2 1

5 5 2)

Find N(A), R(A), N(A^T),R(A^T). Show that the fundamental subspace theorem holds: N(A^T)=R(A)^(upside down T), N(A)=R(A^T)^(upsidedown T).

Hint: Notice that the fourth row is the sum of the first three rows.

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Problem:

a=(1 1 2

1 2 -1

3 2 1

5 5 2)

Find N(A), R(A), N(A^T),R(A^T). Show that the fundamental subspace theorm holds: N(A^T)=R(A)^(upside down T), N(A)=R(A^T)^(upsidedown T).

Hint: Notice that the fourth row is the sum of the first three rows.

Solution:

Let us apply the Gaussian Elimination to this matrix. Then, we get O1 A=U, OA=R, where

O1 =[1 0 0 0

-1 1 0 0

-4 1 1 0

-1 -1 -1 1 ]

U=[ 1 1 2

0 1 -3

0 0 -8

0 0 0]

O=[ -1/2 -3/8 5/8 0

1/2 5/8 -3/8 0

1/2 -1/8 -1/8 0

-1 -1 -1 1]

R=[ 1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 0]

To get Matrix U and O1, we apply the Gaussian Elimination to the matrix A I

A I = [ 1 1 2 1 0 0 0

1 2 -1 0 1 0 0

3 2 1 0 0 1 0

5 5 2 0 0 0 1 ]

--ïƒ [1 1 2 1 0 0 0

0 1 -3 -1 1 0 0

0 -1 -5 -3 0 1 0

0 0 -8 -5 0 0 1 ...

#### Solution Summary

This gives a matrix and then proves that the fundamental subspace theorem holds. Matrix algebra is analyzed.