# Theory of Probability and Statistics

Describe the historical development of statistics and probability. Please include some reference to non-Western mathematics history.

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History of mathematics

Describe the historical development of statistics and probability in non-Western cultures.

Al-Kindi was an Iraqi national who developed the first code algorithm based on frequency analysis. He wrote a book entitled "Manuscript on Deciphering Cryptographic Messages," containing detailed discussion on statistics. His books contains Indian numbers, lines and multiplication with numbers, relative quantities, measuring proportion and time, and numerical procedures and cancellation. The Chinese made contributions to the theory of probability and statistics for thousands of years, but this work did not get recorded by Western society. However, the probability theory did not arise as a branch of mathematics until the mid seventeenth century. In 1494, Fra Luca Paccioli wrote the first book on probability, Summa de arthmetica, geometira, proportioani e proportioanlita (David,1962). In the mid-seventeenth century, Blaise Pascal and Pierre de Fermat continued to exchange their thoughts on the theory of probability through playing the game of chance ( rolling dice and gambling). Thus, Pascal and Fermat are the mathematicians credited with the founding of probability theory. In the 18th century, Laplace and Gauss study astronomy by using normal curve regression analysis. In the 19th century, Galton studied genetic variation in humans (used regression and correlation). In the 20th century, Pearson studied natural selection using correlation, and formed the first academic department of statistics, Biometrika journal. He helped develop the Chi Square analysis. Gossett studied the process of brewing and alerted the statistics community about problems with small sample sizes by developing Student's test. Fisher was an evolutionary biologist that developed ANOVA test and stressed the importance of experimental design. Wilcoxon was a biochemist who studied pesticides and developed non-parametric equivalent of two sample test, and who developed the non-parametric equivalent of the ANOVA. Kendall was a statistician that developed another non-parametric equivalent of the correlation coefficient. Dunnett was a biochemist who studied pesticides and developed the multiple comparisons procedure for control groups.

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