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Calculating the correlation between variables

What are the steps for calculating the correlation between two variables?

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Sometimes we want to investigate what is the relationship between two variables e.g. X and Y, where X would be for example height, and Y weight. This is actually one of the most frequent research questions. If there is indeed a strong relationship between variables X and Y, we might decide to substitute X for Y in cases that X is less expensive or easier to measure or achieve than Y or in other ...

Solution Summary

This solution is comprised of a detailed explanation of correlation and the correlation coefficient r. A detailed step by step numerical example calculation of the correlation coefficient, enhanced by a diagram of the relationship, supplements the more than 300 words of text explanation of this fundamental research question.