First, it is helpful to distinguish between the International Parental Kidnapping Crime Act 1993 (IPKCA) and Hague Abduction Convention.
The IPKCA is a United States federal law signed as Public Law 103-322 by President Bill Clinton on September 2, 1993. The IPCKA makes it a federal crime to remove a child from the U.S.A. or to keep a child who is a citizen of the U.S.A. in another crime with the intent to obstruct custodial rights. 18 U.S.C. § 1204.
The Hague Abduction Convention, on the other hand, is international law. It applies to parents and children who originate from a country that is a party to the Hague Convention. Specifically, twenty-three countries drafted the treaty on child abduction in 1976 at the Hague Conference on Private International Law. United States State Department, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Possible Solutions - Using ...
Discusses international law from the standpoint of child kidnapping policies.