Â?¢Using the library, course materials, textbook, and Web resources, research and discuss the 5 major goals of corrections:
â-¦Restorative justiceâ-¦For each goal of corrections, answer the following:
â- What is the rationale behind the goal? What is the purpose of the goal? Explain.
â- What types of sentences would be issued? Why? Explain.
â- What are 2 advantages of achieving this goal? Explain in detail.
â- What are 2 disadvantages of achieving this goal? Explain in detail.
â- What crime control strategies could be implemented under this rationale?
â- Provide examples where appropriate.
â?¢Use at least 3 scholarly sources to fully support your arguments.
â?¢Be sure to reference all sources using APA style.
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"The massive prison construction represents a commitment by our nation to plan for social failure by spending billions of dollars to lock up hundreds of thousands of people while at the same time cutting billions of dollars from programs that would provide opportunity to young Americans." - Steven Donziger, The Real War on Crime
Retribution, Incapacitation, Deterrence: These were once the "standard" theories of punishment. Rehabilitation and Restoration would come later.
According to Allen, Simonson and Latessa (2004) the pendulum has swung from identifying criminals as (1) evil and must be destroyed, (2) out of touch with God and need to repent, (3) poorly educated and ill-trained to function in modern society and (4) sick and in need of being cured. . ." (id) to a huge change in attitude of how prisons are built, the intended goals and what the implications are of new programs and facilities.
The attitudes of the old guard reflect the three previous ideologies, i.e. punishment, treatment and prevention, with the punishment ideology reflecting the ideas of retribution, deterrence and incapacitation. Heinrich Oppenheimer (1913) rationalizes that punishment provides the religious mission to punish, the aesthetic to resolve discord and in the expiatory view "guilt must be washed away through suffering" (Allen, Simonson and Latessa, 2004; Oppenheimer, 1913). Ledger Wood provides a fourth, utilitarian theory, i.e. the punishment should fit the crime. (Allen et al, 2004; Wood, nd). Herbert Packer argued that there are three elements to punishment: Offense; Pain in response to the offense; and prevention of further offenses. (Muraskin, Roslyn [ed], 2005; Clear & Cole, 2000).
Retribution has existed since laws were developed. Its rationale is simply that criminals are the enemy of society and deserve punishment. It can be addressed as "social revenge" (Allen, et al, 2004; Newman, 1983). People who hold the theory of retribution believe that the offender deliberately and willfully commits the crimes and it is up to the state to make them suffer. (Allen, et al, 2004) The advantages that those who support retribution claim is that it is fair and just to punish a person who commits unlawful acts and they also believe that rehabilitation does not work. The disadvantages are making the judgment as to how much punishment is necessary and how far the state go ...
Over time, the goals of corrections have evolved from vengeance and a concentration on repentance to methods and theories involving the criminal, community, victim and restitution. We discuss here the five main goals and their progression, i.e. Retribution, Deterrence, Rehabilitation, Incapacitation and Restorative justice; the rationale and purpose of the goal; the types of sentences that would be issued; advantages of achieving this goal; the disadvantages of achieving this goal; and what crime control strategies could be implemented under each rationale.