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Ottoman succes creating a Non-Arab Islamic Empire

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What were the reasons for the military successes of the Ottoman-Turks in creating a third (but non-Arab) Islamic empire re-uniting the Greater Middle-East/Gulf region, and what type of relations did the Turks have towards their non-Turkish subject populations and minorities (Arabs, Balkan and Middle-Eastern Christians, Armenian Christians, Jews, Kurds, Persians)?

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This solution examines the success of the Ottomans in creating a non-Arab empire in the Middle East. Military, political, economic and religious policy is discussed. Over 450 words of original text along with links to sources for further research.

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The Turks migrated from an area just west of China toward the Middle East over several centuries. They are initially mentioned by Chinese writers two hundred years before Jesus Christ was born. Written examples of the Turkic language date back to around 730. These Turks then were Asian rather than Arab in ethnicity. The Oguz Turks converted to Islam around the 10th century and were employed by various Islamic leaders as soldiers in their armies. They were called gazis by the Arabs indicating that they were warriors for Islam in spite of their Asian ethnicity. In 1055 a Turk known as Tugrul Bey turned against his Arab employers and conquered Baghdad. He forced the Arab leader to recognize him as sultan and so ...

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