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    Under the Radical Reconstruction plan, Southern voters were required to take the Ironclad Oath.

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    On the surface, the Ironclad Oath was a means by which to ensure the loyalty of the defeated Confederate populations to the Union victors. However, at the "root" level oath takers also had to swear that they had not been supporters of Southern independence in 1860 and that they had not perpretrated any acts against the Union. The major, ...