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    Reconstruction: The Growth of America

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    1. Describe the changed world of ex-slaves after the Civil War.
    2. Outline the different phases of Reconstruction, beginning with Lincoln's plan and moving through presidential Reconstruction to Congressional Reconstruction.
    3. Explain how Reconstruction evolved at the individual states' level.
    4. Evaluate and understand the relative success of Reconstruction.
    5. Describe and discuss the development of the Industrial Revolution in America after the Civil War, concentrating on the major industries and their leaders.
    6. Describe how America's regional and local markets merged into one truly national market and how this influenced the consumer demand for products and services, as well as some of the costs associated with the transition.
    7. Discuss the functioning of national, state, and local politics during the late 1800s.
    8. Describe the formation of the early labor unions in the United States, including their goals, activities, and situations at the end of the nineteenth century.
    9. Describe the evolution of urbanization and immigration in the North during the second half of the nineteenth century, and how those two factors shaped the region's social relations, including its disparities of wealth.
    10. Evaluate what was meant by the term New South.
    11. Describe the development of the American West that took place during the second half of the nineteenth century, addressing both the role that industrialization played and the final defeat of Native American tribes on the plains.
    12. Discuss the problems that confronted America's farmers in the North, South, and West during the late 1800s, and describe how their attempts to solve those problems led to the formation of a new political party.

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    The world changed drastically for ex- slaves after the Civil War. From a world of slavery and forced servitude, where all aspects of being were dictated, the world of the ex- slave was seismically different upon the conclusion of the conflict. The world of the ex- slaves was filled with challenges at nearly every point. From not being able to effectively articulate the course of their lives, the world of the ex- slave was one where this decision making process was critical in defining success in a foreign world where little in way of effective assistance was offered. Part of this transformation existed in how the different phases of Reconstruction emerged. Lincoln's plan was for the South to embrace a Republican approach to restoration. Lincoln's plan was moderate upon the completion of war. It was one that consisted of the 10% of electorate taking oaths of loyalty to the Union, and ensured that the South was not punished for any pro- slavery positions intrinsic to the South. In Lincoln's mind, Congressional Reconstruction was one that sought to minimize the harshness against the South. Over time, Lincoln's position towards Congressional Reconstruction was muddled, at best, because of his death at a point when further articulation was needed.
    Reconstruction evolved at the individual state level as one that might have accepted the federal mandates, but were never comfortable with them. The establishment of Black Codes helped to establish segregation at the state level. Carl Schurz reported that the presence of Black Codes and other repressive measures towards people of color helped to explain how Reconstruction grew and evolved on the state level: "The number of murders and assaults perpetrated upon Negroes is very great; we can form only an approximative ...

    Solution Summary

    The growth of America after the Civil War was transformative in all aspects of life.