Prepare an argument that would create or critique some ethical guidelines (i.e Kant, Rawls, Ross etc). for research on children below the age of 12 - which could be as restrictive as never allowed, could be situational e.g., child is dying; could give the parents some or no control.
Please see response below. This is another interesting application assignment. I also attached an example of guidelines proposed by National Institute of Health (NIH) to consider.
Interesting assignment! One approach to helping with assignments like this one is through discussion and illustrative examples, which you can draw on for your final copy. This is the approach this response takes.
Often, when organizations are in the process of developing guidelines for research including research with children, they research what other health care organizations use as guidelines, refer to their code of ethics, and then write up provides specific for children. Most guidelines reflect one or more ethical theories. However, In United States, medical ethics reflects Kantian ethics.
Now, let's take a closer look at potential guidelines, justification of when to use children in research, and then some practical guidelines employed by others, which you can draw on for your final copy.
1. Prepare an argument that would create or critique some ethical guidelines (i.e. Kant, Rawls, Ross etc). For research on children below the age of 12 - which could be as restrictive as never allowed, could be situational e.g., child is dying; could give the parents some or no control.
Concerning ethics in research with children, most organizations should abide by the code of ethics set out by their discipline. In addition, researchers should familiarize themselves with ethics guidelines pertaining specifically to children, which have been developed by a number of organizations. These guidelines vary somewhat depending upon the value basis for the research in different organizations.
For example, some guidelines to consider for this assignment which reflect Kantian ethics (and perhaps Existential Ethics e.g., principle of autonomy) are as follows:
· Having a commitment to children's well-being (Beneficence)
· Having a commitment to doing no harm (Non-Maleficence)
· Having a commitment to children's rights including the right of individuals to take responsibility for him or herself (Autonomy)
· Being child-centered in its approach to research, listening to children, treating them in a fair and just manner (Fidelity) (Whyte, 2003 - draft document on ethics) http://www.tcd.ie/Psychology/Ethics_Guidelines.html).
These principles have implications for decision-making in a number of key areas, including consent and confidentiality, but also in the general manner in which children are treated in any research encounter (see Illustrative example below for practical steps to consider which are implied and under the umbrella of the above four ethical guidelines).
NOTE: In the research plan, the investigator should create a section titled "Participation of Children". This section should provide either a description of the plans to include children and a rationale for selecting or excluding a specific age range of child, or an explanation of the reason(s) for excluding children as participants in the research. When children are included, the plan must also include a description of the expertise of the investigative team for dealing with children at the ages included, of the appropriateness of the available facilities to accommodate the children, and the inclusion of a sufficient number of children to contribute to a meaningful analysis relative to the purpose of the study. Scientific review groups at the NIH will assess each application as being "acceptable" or "unacceptable" in regard to the age-appropriate inclusion or exclusion of children in the research project, in addition to evaluating the plans for conducting the research in accord with these provisions (http://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/notice-files/not98-024.html). For example:
Justifications for Exclusions
It is expected that children ...
This solution considers some ethical guidelines (i.e Kant, Rawls, Ross etc). for research on children below the age of 12, including could be restrictive as never allowed, could be situational e.g., child is dying or could give the parents some or no control.