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    Justify your decision-making concerning the following situation:

    You are a paramedic arriving at an emergency scene. A group of scouts have entered a cave that is now filling with water. They were led into the cave by a rather large scoutmaster. Unfortunately, while leading them out of the cave, the scoutmaster somehow managed to get stuck in a narrow opening with only his head and shoulders protruding out. With his upper torso stuck outside the cave, it appears the scoutmaster will survive, but all the boys below will drown if they cannot escape.

    After you have checked all possible escape routes and have attempted to extricate the scoutmaster, it becomes clear that the only way to save the boys is to sacrifice the scoutmaster, so he can be removed. This is, unfortunately, not the Winnie the Pooh story where Rabbit has the option of waiting until Pooh loses weight. What is the correct action for this case?

    First, justify your decision using duty-oriented reasoning. (1 to 2 Paragraphs)

    Second, justify your decision using consequence oriented reasoning. (1 to 2 Paragraphs)

    Third, justify your decision using virtue-ethics reasoning. (1 to 2 Paragraphs)

    Based on your analysis, consider what might be the ultimate dilemma of ethics? Based on your consideration, answer the following questions:
    What happens when we apply differential standards (all valid) to healthcare decisions?
    How do we determine who is ultimately right when different decisions are reached? (2 to 3 Paragraphs)
    Why is law not an exact science?
    What are the implications for healthcare?
    Please add references APA style, thanks

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    Solution Preview

    Duty oriented reasoning tells you that you should attempt to save as many lives as possible and so the decision would be to sacrifice the scoutmaster. The dilemma of duty towards the scoutmaster vs duty towards the children is easily solved because of the larger number of students. This is ethical behavior. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is "good" or "right." The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. This is one part of value theory (axiology) - the other part is aesthetics - of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic. ethical motive: motivation based on ideas of right and wrong.

    The consequences based reasoning tells the paramedic to consider the consequences of sacrificing the scoutmaster vs sacrificing the children. If the scoutmaster were sacrificed, not only he would lose his life but his family would suffer. On the other hand if the children were sacrificed, a larger number of persons would lose their lives as well as their families would suffer. This action is supported by moral values and rules.

    Virtue ethics reasoning is the branch of philosophy concerned with evaluating human action. Some distinguish virtue ethics, what is right or wrong based on reason, from morals, what is considered right or wrong behavior based on social custom. It is morally wrong to sacrifice any human life, but given the choice between one scoutmaster and many children the decision goes in favor of many children because a scoutmaster has already lived a larger percentage of his life than the children have and the numbers favor the children.
    Everyone's ethics are defined by what they will tolerate when it is done to others.
    In other words when we speak or stay silent in the face of actions done to others that our ethics are revealed.

    · As health care professionals we challenge our relationship to ourselves as we struggle to inform ourselves and expand our awareness,
    · As health care professionals we increase our openness to others as we share the planet,
    · As health care professionals we develop and nurture the tolerance to sit with the discomfort as we explore difficult issues,
    · As health care professionals we develop the courage to transgress the universal norms of the social systems
    · As health care professionals we rationalize and sometimes even defray the cost of this (in relationships and monetary terms)

    So as health care professionals we learn professional standards are about identifying relationships and working out what the obligations and responsibilities are in these relationships. That is the paramedic was in a dilemma. And, as you all know, in the diversity of cultures, ages, social classes and economic forces, as well as learning and personal competencies they will never cover all possibilities. New challenges will arise. At most they provide us with a loose set of shared, guiding principles to relate to each other with, but they also make clear the exceptions and anomalies. It is maintaining the paradox between these things that makes them interesting.
    In spite of the paramedic case we as health care professionals need to have a set of guidelines: