A look into the who, what, how and why of Animal Farm. This solutions explores the reasons George Orwell could have written Animal Farm and the influences surrounding him. Furthermore with propaganda surrounding George in the physical world he transformed that into various forms of propaganda and symbolism throughout the book.© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 25, 2018, 3:39 am ad1c9bdddf
George Orwell [pseudonym of Eric Arthur Blair] (1903-1950), journalist, political author and novelist wrote Animal Farm (1945) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949);
"It was one of those pictures which are so contrived that the eyes follow you about when you move. BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU, the caption beneath it ran."
Originally titled Last Man in Europe it was renamed Nineteen Eighty-Four for unknown reasons, possibly a mere reversal of the last two digits of the year it was written. It was first met with conflicting criticisms and acclaim; some reviewers disliked its dystopian satire of totalitarian regimes, nationalism, the class system, bureaucracy, and world leaders' power struggles, while others panned it as nihilistic prophesy on the downfall of humankind. Some still see it as anti-Catholic with Big Brother replacing God and church. From it the term Orwellian has evolved, in reference to an idea or action that is hostile to a free society. Yet, Nineteen Eighty-Four has proven to be a profoundly meaningful work and continues to be one of the world's most widely read and quoted novels into the twenty-first century. Inspired by Yevgeny Zamyatin's (1884-1937) We, Blair worked intensely, often writing ten hours a day and even when bedridden with tuberculosis in his last days continued to labour over it. From his essay "Why I Write";
"First I spent five years in an unsuitable profession (the Indian Imperial Police, in Burma), and then I underwent poverty and the sense of failure. This increased my natural hatred of authority and made me for the first time fully aware of the existence of the working classes, and the job in Burma had given me some understanding of the nature of imperialism: but these experiences were not enough to give me an accurate political orientation. Then came Hitler, the Spanish Civil War, etc. By the end of 1935 I had still failed to reach a firm decision."
He goes on to say;
"The Spanish war and other events in 1936-37 turned the scale and thereafter I knew where I stood. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it."
Education and Early Years 1903-1921
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 in Motihari, Bengal (now Bihar) India, into a family of the "lower-upper middle class" as he wryly puts it in The Road to Wigan Pier (1933). He was the son of Ida Mabel née Limouzin (1875-1943) and Richard Walmesley Blair (1857-1938), who worked as a sub-deputy opium agent for the Indian Civil Service under the British Raj. Eric rarely saw his father until he had retired in 1912. Eric's grandfather had been a wealthy plantation and slave owner but the fortunes dwindled by the time he was born. He had two sisters, Marjorie and Avril.
At the age of one Eric and his mother settled in England; his father joined them in 1912. At the age of five, Blair entered the Anglican parish school of Henley-on-Thames which he attended for two years before entering the prestigious St. Cyprian's school in Sussex. Corporal punishment was common in the day and possibly a source of his initial resentment towards authority. While there, Blair wrote his first published work, the poem "Awake! Young Men of England"; "Oh! think of the War Lord's mailed fist, That is striking at England today." With pressures to excel, Eric earned a scholarship to "the most costly and snobbish of the English Public Schools" Eton College where he attended between 1917 and 1921, and where Aldous Huxley, author of Brave New World (1932) taught him French.
Indian Civil Service 1922-1927
Following in his father's footsteps, Blair went to Burma (now Myanmar) to join the Indian Imperial Police, much like author H. H. Munro or 'Saki' had done in 1893. During the next five years he grew to love the Burmese and resent the oppression of imperialism and decided to become a writer instead. Works he wrote influenced by this period of his life are his essay "A Hanging" (1931); "It is curious, but till that moment I had never realized what it means to destroy a healthy, conscious man." and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936); "It is a serious matter to shoot a working elephant - it is comparable to destroying a huge and costly piece of machinery.". His novel Burmese Days was first published in the United States in 1934 and then London in 1935, also based on his days in service.
Paris and London 1928-1936
After Orwell resigned, he moved to Paris to try his hand at short stories, writing freelance for various periodicals though he ended up destroying them because nobody would publish them. He had to resort to menial jobs including one at the pseudononymous 'Hotel X' that barely provided him enough to eat as a plongeur;
"[A] plongeur is one of the slaves of the modern world. Not that there is any need to whine over him, for he is better off than many manual workers, but still, he is no freer than if he were bought and sold. His work is servile and without art; he is paid just enough to keep him alive; his only holiday is the sack... trapped by a routine which makes thought impossible. If plongeurs thought at all, they would long ago have formed a union and gone on strike for better treatment. But they do not think, because they have no leisure for it; their life has made slaves of them." -Down and Out in Paris and London (1933)
After a bout of pneumonia in 1929 Blair moved back to England to live in East London and adopted his pseudonym George Orwell, partly to avoid embarrassing his family. Down and Out in Paris and London, similarly to Emile Zola's The Fat and the Thin (1873) famously exposes the seedy underbelly of Paris and accounts his days of living hand to mouth;
"At present I do not feel that I have seen more than the fringe of poverty. Still I can point to one or two things I have definitely learned by being hard up. I shall never again think that all tramps are drunken scoundrels, nor expect a beggar to be grateful when I give him a penny, nor be surprised if men out of work lack energy, nor subscribe to the Salvation Army, nor pawn my clothes, nor refuse a handbill, nor enjoy a meal at a smart restaurant. That is a beginning."
A proponent for socialism, Blair now wanted to write for the 'common man' and purposefully lived as a tramp in London and the Home Counties and stayed with miners in the north. Blair learned of the disparity between the classes and came to know a life of poverty and hardship amongst beggars and thieves. His study of the under-classes in general would provide the theme for many of his works to follow. We read of his 'urban rides' and experience with the unemployed in The Road to Wigan Pier (1937), written for the Left Book Club.
In 1932 Blair was a teacher for a time before moving to Hampstead, London to work in a bookstore. In the sardonically comical Keep The Aspidistra Flying (1936) Gordon Comstock spurns the 'Money God', materialism, and status, though that which he hates becomes an obsession. Comstock's political creed soon proves a cover-up for deep seated emotional issues;
"The money clinked in his trouser pocket as he got up. He knew the precise sum that was there. Fivepence halfpenny-twopence halfpenny and a Joey. He paused, took out the miserable little threepenny-bit, and looked at it. Beastly, useless thing! And bloody fool to have taken it! It had happened yesterday, when he was buying cigarettes. 'Don't mind a threepenny-bit, do you, sir?' the little bitch of a shop-girl had chirped. And of course he had let her give it him. 'Oh no, not at all!' he had said-fool, bloody fool!"
In 1936 Blair and once student of J.R.R. Tolkien student Eileen O'Shaughnessy (1905-1945) married. In 1944 they would adopt a son, Richard Horatio. ...
This solutions is comprised of a detailed explanation of the background of Animal Farm, reasons Orwell could have written this book as well as the propaganda and symbolism throughout the book.
Creation myths and theories are presented.
Provide help with summarizing and applying theories of myth to selected creation myths. Myth & Knowing discusses a variety of theoretical approaches scholars use to better understand mythology. Select three of those theories and summarize them in your own words. Then, compare two creation myths using the theories you summarized to explain how each creation myth functions in the culture in which it is a part. Conclude by reflecting on these theories to help explain the cultural function of myths in general:
Mythology will forever expand in studies during the length of a lifetime. Myths have a sense of truth that is questioned by many. Family legends, history, religion, culture, and arts are realities that uphold mythâ??s and the explanation behind it. â??Like an onion, a myth has many layersâ? (Leonard & McClure, 2004, p. 28) which explains the various stories of symbolism, religious allegories, and beliefs which can possibly be narrowed down to the closest truth of that time. There are varied theories of myth current applied to study a particular myth or story. Scholars use theories to better understand myths. Plato, Euhemeros and Euhemerism, and Adalbert Kuhn are scholars whose theories are discussed through a personal view and compared by two creation myths Out of the Blue and The Popul Vu.
Platoâ??s Rational Myth created a new path for the Greek word mytho by confirming the synonym as false (( Leonard & McClure, 2004, p. 4). Plato validated mythâ??s as â??a form of truthâ? that were philosophical about origins myths, but claimed myths created by people which spoke of Gods and Heroes were false myths (( Leonard & McClure, 2004, p.4). In another sense Plato believed that various stories that do not serve justification or were truth cannot be found are false myths. Concrete locations and origins lead to truth for Plato.
Euhemeros and Euhemerism was firm on science belief versus explanations of history and imagination. Euhemerism did not acknowledge the truth-value for all myths and still questioned exaggeration to previous historic events. â??Euhemeros believed that myths were not true per se but that they contained the kernels of historical truthâ? ( Leonard & McClure, 2004, p.5).
Adalbert Kuhn was influenced by Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche which allowed him to view various myths as allegories. Kuhnâ??s approach allowed him to see different views of myths compared to the elements of the earth. As an example â??particularly the rainstorm that bestows fire in the form of lightning and the life-giving elixir of rain which makes all life possibleâ?¦ the stolen gift was fire; sometimes it was the elixir of immortalityâ? (Leonard & McClure, 2004, p. 12).
Leonard, S., & McClure, M. (2004). Myth & knowing: An introduction to world mythology. New York: McGraw-Hill.View Full Posting Details