Systematic Reasoning: Disagreements, Claims, and Reasons
Puzzles. See if you can figure out the following brain teaser:
An intriguing but baffling argument was presented by Zeno of Elea (c. 495-435 BC) intended to prove that motion and change are impossible. Together with the ancient Greek thinker Parmenides, Zeno believed that we live in a changeless universe in which everything is fixed and frozen for all eternity. Objects like spears or runners may seem to move but that is appearance, not reality.
In support of his unusual position Zeno presented the â??flying arrow paradoxâ? as a prime example. He argued that for an arrow to be propelled through the air by a bow it would have to move from where it is to where it is not. Since the arrow cannot be where it is not, it is unable to move at all; it always stays where it is. We cannot even say that the arrow was or will be where it is not, since that is impossible at any time, whether in the past, present, or future. The arrow must remain in the same place, i.e., where it is, which means that neither an arrow nor anything else can ever move from one place to another.
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Zeno's paradox only works if either 1) everything is everywhere at ...
Zeno's paradox is assessed.