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Components of the Reading Process

To become a skilled reader, one has to acquire a sophisticated understanding of orthography-phonology relationships as they learn to cope with variability in the pronunciation of letters and letter clusters.

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The five components of the reading process are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Text Comprehension. Phonemic awareness is the ability to identify, reflect on, and manipulate sound units of language. In English, the overarching principle is that letters represent segmental phonemes. The alphabetic principle motivates and rationalizes the assimilation of specific letter-sound associations for the reader. To become a skilled reader, one has to acquire a sophisticated understanding of orthography-phonology relationships as they learn to cope with variability in the pronunciation of letters and letter clusters. Phoneme awareness is by definition a metalinguistic skill and hence depends on the reader's cognitive and metacognitive development.

Phonics involves the application of letter-sound knowledge to the decoding of written words. What begins as sounding out and blending often becomes more automatic recognition of word chunks. Recognition of chunks is easier than blending one sound at a time. Word-by-word readers or those who have difficulty sounding out words need more practice in fluent application of phonics to single words and practice recognizing high frequency words. Readers build and store in memory patterns that reflect the interconnectedness among sounds within the language. The relations between letters and sounds have become so well learned that fewer cognitive resources are required for word identification. This allows the reader to quickly and effortlessly map letters to sounds to words through phonological recoding, which is perceived as critical to effective and efficient reading.

The fluency component of the reading process allows readers to see their success with ...

Solution Summary

The five components of the reading process are Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, and Text Comprehension.

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