Here is the complete explanation that I need to get started.
Describe why the study of curriculum history is important to educators.
Research and describe the curriculum history of a nation other than the United States.
Apply what you have learned about the relationship between culture and curriculum and explain what you believe are the ideological components of this nation's curriculum development and changes. Include a justification for why you believe this to be the case.
Finally, using what you have learned about the history and nature of curriculum, explain what you believe the future may hold for continued curriculum expansion for the United States and the nation you researched. Include a justification for why you believe this to be true in both cases.
I also need some references. How can I give an explanation to each of these questions to make up a complete thought?© BrainMass Inc. brainmass.com October 24, 2018, 7:26 pm ad1c9bdddf
Please see response attached (Posting 67843.doc for complete response and best formatting), including one highly relevant article as well. I hope this helps and take care.
PART OF THE ATTACHED RESPONSE:
1. Describe why the study of curriculum history is important to educators.
Throughout history people expressed different views about the education of our children. These views caused conflict among many educators and such conflict initiated curriculum changes to enhance the education system of the United States. Many great educators were involved in the curriculum changes of the 1800's and 1900's (some are listed below). One thing is for certain, as major events continue to require improvements in education, the list of educational perspectives and their advocates will increase and curriculum in our schools will continue to evolve. (1) Thus, the great important for the study of curriculum history. Mainly, we need to know where we have come, in order to know where we are going. To know our history also helps us not to repeat the mistakes of the past and also to learn from the great successes as well.
Let's see what the great educators of the past have to say about why the study of curriculum is important to educators:
John Dewey - "To study history is not to amass information, but to use information in constructing a vivid picture of how and why men did thus and so; achieved their successes and came to their failures." In his mind the general aim of teaching history was to lead the child to an appreciation of the values of social life and to let the child see the forces that led to effective cooperation among human beings. (Kliebard, p 65) (1)
G. Stanley Hall - "There is no more wild, free, vigorous growth of the forest, but everything is in pots or rows like a rococo garden... The pupil is in the age of spontaneous variation, which at no period of life is so great. He does not want a standardized, overpeptonized mental diet. It palls on his appetite." (Kliebard, p12) (1)
Boyd Bode - "Progressive education must either become a challenge to all the basic beliefs and attitudes which have been dominant for so long in every important domain of human interest, or else retreat to the nursery." (Kliebard, p 200) (1)
Charles W. Eliot - "We Americans habitually underestimate the capacity of pupils at almost every stage of education from the primary school to the university" and that, for example, "the proportion of grammar school children incapable of pursuing geometry, algebra and a foreign language would turn out to be much smaller than we now imagine." (Kliebard, p 10) (1)
John Franklin Bobbitt - "As agencies of social progress, schools should give efficient service. And efficient service, we are nowadays coming to know, is service directed, not by guess or whim or special self-interest, but by science." (Kliebard, p 101) (1)
It is also important today, to understand the history of our curriculum to guide our decisions for change today. Perhaps now more than at any other time in recent history are the efforts of those concerned with curricular matters challenged. The latest attempt to influence the curriculum comes from the No Child Left Behind presidential mandate. Perhaps the real name of this mandate should read No Child Left ...
This solution explains why the study of curriculum history is important to educators through an example of a country other than United States. The relationship between culture and curriculum are explained in terms of the ideological components of this nation's curriculum development and changes. Futrue trends are explored for continued curriculum expansion for the United States and the nation example. Supplemented with an article on how learning is affected by the curriculum.
Independent, dependent, research variables in a smoking cessation study
1. Identify, describe, and critique—conceptually and operationally—the major study variables. Examine the purpose, the objectives, questions, or hypotheses, as well as the results section of the research article. Identify and define each variable type as one of the following:
a. Independent variables
b. Dependent variables
c. Research variables
2. Identify and critique attributes and demographic variables.
See attached article.View Full Posting Details